Standard Reference Radiographs for Titanium Castings
4.1 Personnel utilizing reference radiographs to this standard shall be qualified and authorized to perform radiographic interpretation in accordance with a nationally or internationally recognized NDT personnel qualification practice or standard such as ANSI/ASNT-CP-189, SNT-TC-1A, NAS 410, ISO 9712, or a similar document and certified by the employer or certifying agency, as applicable. The practice or standard used and its applicable revision shall be identified in the contractual agreement between the using parties. A certified Level III shall be available to assist with interpreting specifications and product requirements as applied to the reference radiographs (if the Level III is the radiographic interpreter, this may be the same person).
4.2 These reference radiographs are designed so that acceptance standards, which may be developed for particular requirements, can be specified in terms of these radiographs. The radiographs are of castings that were produced under conditions designed to produce the discontinuities. The reference radiographs are intended to be used for casting thickness ranges in accordance with Table 1 and Table 2.
1.1 The reference radiographs provided in the adjunct to this standard are reproductions of original radiographs and are supplied as a means for establishing some of the categories and severity levels of discontinuities in titanium castings that may be revealed by radiographic examination. Use of this standard for the specification or grading of castings requires procurement of the adjunct reference radiographs which illustrate the discontinuity types and severity levels. They should be used in accordance with contractual specifications.
Note 1: The original radiographs produced for Volume I were taken with X-rays in the range of 110 kVp to 220 kVp. The original radiographs produced for Volume II were taken with X-rays in the range of 200 kVp to 340 kVp.
1.2 These film reference radiographs are not intended to illustrate the types and degrees of discontinuities found in titanium castings when performing digital radiography. If performing digital radiography of titanium castings, refer to Digital Reference Images E2669.
1.3 These reference radiographs consist of two volumes. Volume I, described in Table 1, is applicable to a wall thickness of up to 1 in. (0 to 25.4 mm). Volume II, described in Table 2, is applicable to a wall thickness of over 1 in. to 2 in. (25.4 mm to 50.8 mm). The standard may be used, where there is no other applicable standard, for other thicknesses for which agreement has been reached between purchaser and manufacturer.
Note 1: 1 in. = 25.4 mm.
Note 2: The reference radiographs are not impacted by this revision. There have been no revisions to the adjunct reference radiographs since original issue. The adjunct reference radiographs of any issue remain valid and may be used to this standard.
1.4 The plates produced to serve for use in this standard were purposely cast to exhibit the desired discontinuity. The plates were cast using different processes as shown in Table 1 and Table 2. Hot isostatic pressing was not used on any of the plates.
1.5 From time to time, there may be minor changes to the process for manufacturing of the reference radiograph adjunct materials. These changes could include changes in the films or processing chemicals used, changes in the dies or printing for the cardboard mats, etc.; however, in all cases, these changes are reviewed by the Illustration Monitoring Subcommittee and all reference radiographs are reviewed against a fixed prototype image to ensure that there are no changes to the acceptance level represented by the reference radiographs. Therefore, the adjunct reference radiographs remain valid for use with this standard regardless of the date of production or the revision level of the text standard.
1.6 Units—The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.8 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
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