Standard Practice for Extreme Value Analysis of Nonmetallic Inclusions in Steel and Other Microstructural Features
This practice describes a methodology to statistically characterize the distribution of the largest indigenous non-metallic inclusions in steel specimens based upon quantitative metallographic measurements. This practice enables the experimenter to estimate the extreme value distribution of inclusions in steels. The procedures in determining non-metallic inclusions in steel are presented and discussed in details.
5.1 This practice is used to assess the indigenous inclusions or second-phase constituents in metals using extreme value statistics.
5.2 It is well known that failures of mechanical components, such as gears and bearings, are often caused by the presence of large nonmetallic oxide inclusions. Failure of a component can often be traced to the presence of a large inclusion. Predictions related to component fatigue life are not possible with the evaluations provided by standards such as Test Methods E45, Practice E1122, or Practice E1245. The use of extreme value statistics has been related to component life and inclusion size distributions by several different investigators (3-8). The purpose of this practice is to create a standardized method of performing this analysis.
5.3 This practice is not suitable for assessing the exogenous inclusions in steels and other metals because of the unpredictable nature of the distribution of exogenous inclusions. Other methods involving complete inspection such as ultrasonics must be used to locate their presence.
1.1 This practice describes a methodology to statistically characterize the distribution of the largest indigenous nonmetallic inclusions in steel specimens based upon quantitative metallographic measurements. The practice is not suitable for assessing exogenous inclusions.
1.2 Based upon the statistical analysis, the nonmetallic content of different lots of steels can be compared.
1.3 This practice deals only with the recommended test methods and nothing in it should be construed as defining or establishing limits of acceptability.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.4.1 For measurements obtained from light microscopy, linear feature parameters shall be reported as micrometers, and feature areas shall be reported as micrometers.
1.5 The methodology can be extended to other materials and to other microstructural features.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
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