Standard Practice for Examination of Paper Machine Rolls Using Acoustic Emission from Crack Face Rubbing
5.1 Paper machine rolls can range in size from 2.4 to 9 m [8 to 30 ft] long, with a shell thickness of from 12.5 to 75 mm [0.5 to 3 in.,] and 300 to 1200 mm [12 to 48 in.] diameter. Depending on purpose, paper machine rolls can weigh as little as 60 000 kg [13 000 lb] to as much as 27 500 kg [60 000 lb].
5.2 If indications are found during this procedure it can be repeated, with additional sensors to refine source location accuracy.
5.3 Removal of rolls for traditional NDT examination may be impractical and may not be sensitive enough to locate small defects.
5.4 Traditional AE examination, whereby the roll is subjected to load greater than service load to detect crack extension, risks damage to the roll and is best employed as a follow-up NDT examination.
5.5 Manual rotation through a full revolution subjects existing cracks to tensile and compressive forces which can open and close existing cracks, and cause friction at the crack surfaces.
5.6 Excess background noise (overhead cranes, nearby maintenance activities) may distort AE data or render it useless. Users must be aware of the following common sources of background noise: bearing noise (lack of lubrication, spalling, and so forth), mechanical contact with the roll by other objects, electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI) from nearby broadcasting facilities and from other sources. This practice should not be used if background noise cannot be eliminated or controlled.
5.7 Other Non-destructive test methods may be used to evaluate the significance of AE indications. Traditional AE has been used to confirm the existence of the AE indication and fine tune the location. Magnetic particle, ultrasonic and radiographic examinations have been used to establish the position, depth and dimensions of the indication. Procedures for using other NDT methods are beyond the scope of this practice.
1.1 This practice provides guidelines for acoustic emission (AE) examinations of non-pressure, paper machine rolls.
1.2 This practice utilizes a slow rotation of the roll to produce a full load cycle where load is provided by the weight of the roll suspended from its bearings or other journal support mechanism(s).
1.3 This practice is used for detection of cracks and other discontinuities in rolls that produce frictional acoustic emission during rotation.
1.4 The AE measurements are used to detect or locate emission sources, or both. Other nondestructive test (NDT) methods must be used to evaluate the significance of AE sources. Procedures for other NDT techniques are beyond the scope of this practice. See Note 1.
Note 1: Traditional AE examination, magnetic particle examination, shear wave ultrasonic examination, and radiography are commonly used to establish the exact position and dimensions of flaws that produce AE.
1.5 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific precautionary statements are given in Section 8.
1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
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