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ASTM E1268-18

ASTM E1268-18

Standard Practice for Assessing the Degree of Banding or Orientation of Microstructures

2019-07-31 /Historical
Superseeded by:
Significance and Use:

5.1 This practice is used to assess the nature and extent of banding or orientation of microstructures of metals and other materials where deformation and processing produce a banded or oriented condition.

5.2 Banded or oriented microstructures can arise in single phase, two phase or multiphase metals and materials. The appearance of the orientation or banding is influenced by processing factors such as the solidification rate, the extent of segregation, the degree of hot or cold working, the nature of the deformation process used, the heat treatments, and so forth.

5.3 Microstructural banding or orientation influence the uniformity of mechanical properties determined in various test directions with respect to the deformation direction.

5.4 The stereological methods can be applied to measure the nature and extent of microstructural banding or orientation for any metal or material. The microindentation hardness test procedure should only be used to determine the difference in hardness in banded heat-treated metals, chiefly steels.

5.5 Isolated segregation may also be present in an otherwise reasonably homogeneous microstructure. Stereological methods are not suitable for measuring individual features, instead use standard measurement procedures to define the feature size. The microindentation hardness method may be used for such structures.

5.6 Results from these test methods may be used to qualify material for shipment in accordance with guidelines agreed upon between purchaser and manufacturer, for comparison of different manufacturing processes or process variations, or to provide data for structure-property-behavior studies.


1.1 This practice describes a procedure to qualitatively describe the nature of banded or oriented microstructures based on the morphological appearance of the microstructure.

1.2 This practice describes stereological procedures for quantitative measurement of the degree of microstructural banding or orientation.

Note 1: Although stereological measurement methods are used to assess the degree of banding or alignment, the measurements are only made on planes parallel to the deformation direction (that is, a longitudinal plane) and the three-dimensional characteristics of the banding or alignment are not evaluated.

1.3 This practice describes a microindentation hardness test procedure for assessing the magnitude of the hardness differences present in banded heat-treated steels. For fully martensitic carbon and alloy steels (0.10–0.65 %C), in the as-quenched condition, the carbon content of the matrix and segregate may be estimated from the microindentation hardness values.

1.4 This standard does not cover chemical analytical methods for evaluating banded structures.

1.5 This practice deals only with the recommended test methods and nothing in it should be construed as defining or establishing limits of acceptability.

1.6 The measured values are stated in SI units, which are regarded as standard. Equivalent inch-pound values, when listed, are in parentheses and may be approximate.

1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.8 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

anisotropy index; banding; banding rate; feature interceptions; feature intersections; microindention hardness; orientation; steel; stereology;
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