Standard Practice for the Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) of Water and its Headspace for the Analysis of Volatile and Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds
5.1 This practice provides a general procedure for the solid phase micro extraction of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds from an aqueous matrix or its headspace. Solid sorbent extraction is used as the initial step in the extraction of organic constituents for the purpose of quantifying or screening for extractable organic compounds.
5.2 Typical detection limits that can be achieved using SPME techniques with gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (FID), electron capture detector (ECD), or with a mass spectrometer (MS) range from mg/L to μg/L. The detection limit, linear concentration range, and sensitivity of the test method for a specific organic compound will depend upon the aqueous matrix, the fiber phase, the sample temperature, sample volume, sample mixing, and the determinative technique employed.
5.3 SPME has the advantages of speed, no desorption solvent, simple extraction device, and the use of small amounts of sample.
5.3.1 Extraction devices vary from a manual SPME fiber holder to automated commercial device specifically designed for SPME.
5.3.2 Listed below are examples of organic compounds that can be determined by this practice. This list includes both high and low boiling compounds.
Volatile Organic Compounds (1-3)3
Pesticides, General (4, 5)
Organochlorine Pesticides (6)
Organophosphorous Pesticides (7, 8)
Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (9, 10)
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (10)
5.3.3 SPME may be used to screen water samples prior to purge and trap extraction to determine if dilution is necessary, thereby eliminating the possibility of trap overload.
1.1 This practice covers procedures for the extraction of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds from water and its headspace using solid phase micro extraction (SPME).
1.2 The compounds of interest must have a greater affinity for the SPME-absorbent polymer or adsorbent or combinations of these than the water or headspace phase in which they reside.
1.3 Not all of the analytes that can be determined by SPME are addressed in this practice. The applicability of the absorbent polymer, adsorbent, or combination thereof, to extract the compound(s) of interest must be demonstrated before use.
1.4 This practice provides sample extracts suitable for quantitative or qualitative analysis by gas chromatography (GC) or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).
1.5 Where used, it is the responsibility of the user to validate the application of SPME to the analysis of interest.
1.6 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard statements, see Section 12.
1.8 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
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