Standard Test Method for Distillation of Heavy Hydrocarbon Mixtures (Vacuum Potstill Method)
5.1 This test method is one of a number of tests conducted on heavy hydrocarbon mixtures to characterize these materials for a refiner or a purchaser. It provides an estimate of the yields of fractions of various boiling ranges.
5.2 The fractions made by this test method can be used alone or in combination with other fractions to produce samples for analytical studies and quality evaluations.
5.3 Residues to be used in the manufacture of asphalt can also be made but may not always be suitable. The long heat soaking that occurs in this test method may alter some of the properties.
Note 1: While the practice of reblending distillates with residue can be done to produce a lighter residue, it is not recommended because it produces blends with irregular properties.
5.4 Details of cutpoints must be mutually agreed upon before the test begins.
5.5 This is a complex procedure involving many interacting variables. It is most important that at the time of first use of a new apparatus, its components be checked as detailed in Annex A1 and Annex A2 and that the location of the vapor temperature sensor be verified as detailed in 6.5.3 and Fig. 1.
1.1 This test method covers the procedure for distillation of heavy hydrocarbon mixtures having initial boiling points greater than 150 °C (300 °F), such as heavy crude oils, petroleum distillates, residues, and synthetic mixtures. It employs a potstill with a low pressure drop entrainment separator operated under total takeoff conditions. Distillation conditions and equipment performance criteria are specified and typical apparatus is illustrated.
1.2 This test method details the procedures for the production of distillate fractions of standardized quality in the gas oil and lubricating oil range as well as the production of standard residue. In addition, it provides for the determination of standard distillation curves to the highest atmospheric equivalent temperature possible by conventional distillation.
1.3 The maximum achievable atmospheric equivalent temperature (AET) is dependent upon the heat tolerance of the charge. For most samples, a temperature up to 565 °C (1050 °F) can be attained. This maximum will be significantly lower for heat sensitive samples (for example, heavy residues) and might be somewhat higher for nonheat sensitive samples.
1.4 The recommended distillation method for crude oils up to cutpoint 400 °C (752 °F) AET is Test Method D2892. This test method can be used for heavy crude oils with initial boiling points greater than 150 °C (302 °F). However, distillation curves and fraction qualities obtained by these methods are not comparable.
1.5 This test method contains the following annexes:
1.5.1 Annex A1—Test Method for Determination of Temperature Response Time,
1.5.2 Annex A2—Practice for Calibration of Sensors,
1.5.3 Annex A3—Test Method for Dehydration of a Wet Sample of Oil,
1.5.4 Annex A4—Practice for Conversion of Observed Vapor Temperature to Atmospheric Equivalent Temperature (AET), and
1.5.5 Annex A5—Test Method for Determination of Wettage.
1.6 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses after SI units are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific warnings, see 22.214.171.124, 126.96.36.199, 6.9.3, 9.5, 9.7, and A188.8.131.52.
1.8 WARNING—Mercury has been designated by many regulatory agencies as a hazardous substance that can cause serious medical issues. Mercury, or its vapor, has been demonstrated to be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Use Caution when handling mercury and mercury-containing products. See the applicable product Safety Data Sheet (SDS) for additional information. The potential exists that selling mercury or mercury-containing products, or both, is prohibited by local or national law. Users must determine legality of sales in their location.
1.9 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
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