Standard Guide for Waterproofing Repair of Concrete by Chemical Grout Crack Injection
4.1 This guide is intended to be used in the selection and installation of chemical grout to seal leaks in concrete walls, floors, and ceilings. The procedure described in this guide focuses on the injection of through-wall cracks, but may be adapted to cold joints, control joints, voids associated with penetrations, and other voids contributing to water intrusion through concrete elements. This guide is intended to assist the building owner, owner’s representative, architect, engineer, contractor, or authorized inspector, or combinations thereof, during the selection, specification, or installation, or combinations thereof, of chemical grout for waterproofing repair.
4.2 Prior to attempting any repair, it is important for all parties to have a clear and mutual understanding of the limitations of the repair and the iterative nature of the process. Injection of chemical grout does not affect the source of a leak. The repair obstructs the infiltration of water at a specific location only. The flow of water will be diverted elsewhere, and it is common for water to subsequently appear at a different location that was previously dry. A successful campaign at a given location can significantly reduce the amount of water infiltration, but may not fully prevent leakage. Given the nature of the materials and application technique, and depending on the conditions, the repairs should be periodically monitored and additional repair installations may be required.
4.3 This guide is applicable to installations at below-grade walls and slabs. At above-grade elements, temperature variation on a daily or seasonal basis may lead to significant or more frequent changes, or both, in the width of a crack or joint. The use of injected chemical grout may be appropriate for many above-grade applications, but this guide does not specifically address installation of grout in dynamic cracks or joints.
4.4 Cracks in below-grade walls may be a sign of structural distress. Prior to the injection of chemical grout, the overall conditions and context of the damage should be assessed to determine if a non-structural repair is appropriate.
4.5 This guide does not address repairs intended to provide a seal against air leakage or air infiltration.
4.6 Project-specific or environmental conditions such as existing construction, prior waterproofing installations, access, water volume or flow rate, water chemistry, temperature, humidity, and other factors may warrant the evaluation of curtain grouting as an alternative to crack injection.
4.7 Practices F2304, F2414, and F2454 describe materials and procedures related to the use of chemical grout to seal components of sewer systems. While the specific procedures differ from those described in this guide, the standards contain general information on chemical grouting materials and methods that may be of interest to those involved with waterproofing repair of building elements.
4.8 This guide does not address the use of particulate grouts or epoxy as an injection material.
1.1 This guide describes the selection of materials, installation methods, and inspection required for sealing leaks at cracks in concrete building walls and slabs using chemical grout. The process discussed in this guide is a waterproofing repair in which voids in a concrete element are sealed with a reactive solution, installed by pressurized injection through drilled or surface-mounted ports.
1.2 This guide does not address the use of chemical grout for waterproofing by curtain grouting or injection into preplaced permeable waterstop tubes. Injection of masonry elements presents additional factors beyond the scope of this guide. This guide does not address the use of injectable materials for structural repairs, or for geotechnical applications such as soil stabilization.
1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
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