Standard Test Methods for Measuring Resistivity and Hall Coefficient and Determining Hall Mobility in Single-Crystal Semiconductors
4.1 In order to choose the proper material for producing semiconductor devices, knowledge of material properties such as resistivity, Hall coefficient, and Hall mobility is useful. Under certain conditions, as outlined in the Appendix, other useful quantities for materials specification, including the charge carrier density and the drift mobility, can be inferred.
1.1 These test methods cover two procedures for measuring the resistivity and Hall coefficient of single-crystal semiconductor specimens. These test methods differ most substantially in their test specimen requirements.
1.1.1 Test Method A, van der Pauw (1) 2—This test method requires a singly connected test specimen (without any isolated holes), homogeneous in thickness, but of arbitrary shape. The contacts must be sufficiently small and located at the periphery of the specimen. The measurement is most easily interpreted for an isotropic semiconductor whose conduction is dominated by a single type of carrier.
1.1.2 Test Method B, Parallelepiped or Bridge-Type—This test method requires a specimen homogeneous in thickness and of specified shape. Contact requirements are specified for both the parallelepiped and bridge geometries. These test specimen geometries are desirable for anisotropic semiconductors for which the measured parameters depend on the direction of current flow. The test method is also most easily interpreted when conduction is dominated by a single type of carrier.
1.2 These test methods do not provide procedures for shaping, cleaning, or contacting specimens; however, a procedure for verifying contact quality is given.
Note 1: Practice F418 covers the preparation of gallium arsenide phosphide specimens.
1.3 The method in Practice F418 does not provide an interpretation of the results in terms of basic semiconductor properties (for example, majority and minority carrier mobilities and densities). Some general guidance, applicable to certain semiconductors and temperature ranges, is provided in the Appendix. For the most part, however, the interpretation is left to the user.
1.4 Interlaboratory tests of these test methods (Section 19) have been conducted only over a limited range of resistivities and for the semiconductors, germanium, silicon, and gallium arsenide. However, the method is applicable to other semiconductors provided suitable specimen preparation and contacting procedures are known. The resistivity range over which the method is applicable is limited by the test specimen geometry and instrumentation sensitivity.
1.5 The values stated in acceptable metric units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. (See also 3.1.4.)
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
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