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Normas ASTM – AENOR
ASTM E942-16

ASTM E942-16

Standard Guide for Investigating the Effects of Helium in Irradiated Metals

Fecha:
2017-01-12 /Active
Abstract:

This guide presents the simulation procedure which would provide advice for conducting experiments to investigate the effects of helium on the properties of irradiated metals where the technique for introducing the helium differs in someway from the actual mechanism of introduction of helium in service. Simulation techniques considered for introducing helium shall include charged particle implantation, exposure to α-emitting radioisotopes, and tritium decay techniques. Procedures for the analysis of helium content and helium distribution within the specimen are also recommended. The two other methods for introducing helium into irradiated materials namely, the enhancement of helium production in nickel-bearing alloys by spectral tailoring in mixed-spectrum fission reactors, and the isotopic tailoring in both fast and mixed-spectrum fission reactors, are not covered in this guide. Dual ion beam techniques for simultaneously implanting helium and generating displacement damage are also not included here.

Significance and Use:

4.1 Helium is introduced into metals as a consequence of nuclear reactions, such as (n, α), or by the injection of helium into metals from the plasma in fusion reactors. The characterization of the effect of helium on the properties of metals using direct irradiation methods may be impractical because of the time required to perform the irradiation or the lack of a radiation facility, as in the case of the fusion reactor. Simulation techniques can accelerate the research by identifying and isolating major effects caused by the presence of helium. The word ‘simulation’ is used here in a broad sense to imply an approximation of the relevant irradiation environment. There are many complex interactions between the helium produced during irradiation and other irradiation effects, so care must be exercised to ensure that the effects being studied are a suitable approximation of the real effect. By way of illustration, details of helium introduction, especially the implantation temperature, may determine the subsequent distribution of the helium (that is, dispersed atomistically, in small clusters in bubbles, etc.).

Scope:

1.1 This guide provides advice for conducting experiments to investigate the effects of helium on the properties of metals where the technique for introducing the helium differs in some way from the actual mechanism of introduction of helium in service. Techniques considered for introducing helium may include charged particle implantation, exposure to α-emitting radioisotopes, and tritium decay techniques. Procedures for the analysis of helium content and helium distribution within the specimen are also recommended.

1.2 Three other methods for introducing helium into irradiated materials are not covered in this guide. They are: (1) the enhancement of helium production in nickel-bearing alloys by spectral tailoring in mixed-spectrum fission reactors, (2) a related technique that uses a thin layer of NiAl on the specimen surface to inject helium, and (3) isotopic tailoring in both fast and mixed-spectrum fission reactors. These techniques are described in Refs (1-6).2 Dual ion beam techniques (7) for simultaneously implanting helium and generating displacement damage are also not included here. This latter method is discussed in Practice E521.

1.3 In addition to helium, hydrogen is also produced in many materials by nuclear transmutation. In some cases it appears to act synergistically with helium (8-10). The specific impact of hydrogen is not addressed in this guide.

1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Keywords:
helium analysis; helium effects; ion irradiation; radiation damage; tritium trick ;
47,44
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