Standard Test Method for Density of Smoke from the Burning or Decomposition of Plastics
5.1 Tests made on a material under conditions herein prescribed are of considerable value in comparing the relative smoke obscuration characteristics of plastics.
5.2 This test method serves to determine the extent to which plastic materials are likely to smoke under conditions of active burning and decomposition in the presence of flame.
Note 2: One study4 suggested that visual and instrumental observations from this test compare well with the visual observations of the smoke generated by plastic materials when added to a freely burning large outdoor fire.
5.3 The usefulness of this test procedure is in its ability to measure the amount of smoke obscuration produced in a simple, direct, and meaningful manner under the specified conditions. The degree of obscuration of vision by smoke generated by combustibles is known to be affected by changes in quantity and form of material, humidity, draft, temperature, and oxygen supply.
5.4 Safety Precautions—Products of combustion are toxic. Care shall be taken to guard the operator from the effects of products of combustion.
1.1 This fire-test-response test method covers a laboratory procedure for measuring and observing the relative amounts of smoke obscuration produced by the burning or decomposition of plastics. It is intended to be used for measuring the smoke-producing characteristics of plastics under controlled conditions of combustion or decomposition. Correlation with other fire conditions is not implied. The measurements are made in terms of the loss of light transmission through a collected volume of smoke produced under controlled, standardized conditions. The apparatus is constructed so that the flame and smoke is observable during the test.2
1.2 During the course of combustion, gases or vapors, or both, are evolved that are potentially hazardous to personnel. Adequate precautions shall be taken to protect the operator.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information purposes only.
1.4 This standard is used to measure and describe the response of materials, products, or assemblies to heat and flame under controlled conditions, but does not by itself incorporate all factors required for fire hazard or fire risk assessment of the materials, products, or assemblies under actual fire conditions.
1.5 Fire testing is inherently hazardous. Adequate safeguards for personnel and property shall be employed in conducting these tests. Specific safety warning statements are given in 1.2 and 9.13.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Note 1: There is no known ISO equivalent to this standard.
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