Standard Test Method for Impedance and Absorption of Acoustical Materials by Impedance Tube Method
5.1 The acoustical impedance properties of a sound absorptive material are related to its physical properties, such as airflow resistance, porosity, elasticity, and density. As such, the measurements described in this test method are useful in basic research and product development of sound absorptive materials.
5.2 Normal incidence sound absorption coefficients are more useful than random incidence coefficients in certain situations. They are used, for example, to predict the effect of placing material in a small enclosed space, such as inside a machine.
5.3 Estimates of the random incidence or statistical absorption coefficients for materials can be obtained from normal incidence impedance data. For materials that are locally reacting, that is, without sound propagation inside the material parallel to its surface, statistical absorption coefficients can be estimated from specific normal acoustic impedance values using an expression derived by London (1).5 Locally reacting materials include those with high internal losses parallel with the surface such as porous or fibrous materials of high density or materials that are backed by partitioned cavities such as a honeycomb core. Formulas for estimating random incidence sound absorption properties for both locally and bulk-reacting materials, as well as for multilayer systems with and without air spaces have also been developed (2).
1.1 This test method covers the use of an impedance tube, alternatively called a standing wave apparatus, for the measurement of impedance ratios and the normal incidence sound absorption coefficients of acoustical materials.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
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