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ASTM F1356-16

ASTM F1356-16

Standard Guide for Irradiation of Fresh, Frozen or Processed Meat and Poultry to Control Pathogens and Other Microorganisms

2016-12-27 /Active
Significance and Use:

4.1 The principal purpose of irradiation is to help ensure the safety of these foods for human consumption. Irradiation significantly reduces the numbers of pathogenic bacteria such as Campylobacter, Shiga toxin-Producing E coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, or Yersinia enterocolitica.

Note 3: Ionizing radiation doses below 10 kGy will reduce but may not eliminate spores of pathogenic bacteria uncluding those of Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, and Bacillus cereus.

4.2 The process also inactivates parasites such as Trichinella spiralis and Toxoplasma gondii.

4.3 The process may extend the shelf life of fresh meat and poultry by reducing the numbers of viable, spoilage bacteria, such as Pseudomonas species and lactic acid bacilli.

4.4 Radiation processing of fresh, frozen, or processed meat and poultry is a critical control point (CCP) of a Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP) program. It serves as an important measure to control any residual risk from pathogenic microorganisms before the product reaches the consumer (4).

4.5 The “Recommended International Code of Practice for Radiation-Processing of Food” (CAC/RCP 19-1979) of the Codex Alimentarius identifies the essential practices to be implemented to achieve effective radiation processing of food, in general, in a manner that maintains quality and yields food products that are safe and suitable for consumption.


1.1 This guide outlines procedures for the irradiation of fresh, frozen, or processed meat and poultry.

Note 1: The Codex Alimentarius Commission defines meat as “the edible part of any mammal” and poultry as “any domesticated bird, including chicken, turkeys, ducks, geese, guinea-fowls, or pigeons” (CAC/MISC 5).

Note 2: Current U.S. regulations limit the definition of meat and poultry as listed in 9 CFR Section 301.2 and 381.1, respectively. (2, 3).

1.2 This guide covers the use of ionizing radiation to eliminate or reduce the numbers of vegetative, pathogenic microorganisms and parasites, and to extend the refrigerated shelf-life of those products by reducing the numbers of spoilage microorganisms in fresh, frozen, or processed meat and poultry. The absorbed dose for this application is typically less than 10 kGy.

1.3 This guide addresses irradiation of pre-packaged product for retail sale or for use as an ingredient in other products. It also addresses the in-line irradiation of unpackaged product. Other specific ISO and ASTM standards exist for the irradiation of food. In those areas covered by ISO 14470, that standard takes precedence.

1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

bacteria; cattle; chicken; duck; electron beam; equine; food; gamma radiation; goat; goose; guinea; HACCP; horse; irradiation; labeling; meat; microorganisms; mule; packaging; parasites; pathogens; pigeons; poultry; processed; processing; sheep; swine; turkey; X-radiation; X-ray;
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