Standard Test Method for Determination of Low Levels of Heat Release Rate for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
5.1 This test method is used primarily to determine the heat evolved in, or contributed to, a fire involving materials or products that emit low levels of heat release. The recommended use for this test method is for materials with a total heat release rate measured of less than 10 MJ over the first 20 min test period, and which do not give peak heat release rates of more than 200 kW/m2 for periods extending more than 10 s. Also included is a determination of the effective heat of combustion, mass loss rate, the time to sustained flaming, and (optionally) smoke production. These properties are determined on small size test specimens that are representative of those in the intended end use.
5.2 This test method is applicable to various categories of products and is not limited to representing a single fire scenario.
5.3 This test method is not applicable to end-use products that do not have planar, or nearly planar, external surfaces.
1.1 This fire-test-response standard provides a procedure for measuring the response of materials that emit low levels of heat release when exposed to controlled levels of radiant heating with or without an external igniter.
1.2 This test method differs from Test Method E1354 in that it prescribes a different specific test specimen size, specimen holder, test specimen orientation, a direct connection between the plenum and the top plate of the cone heater assembly to ensure complete collection of all the combustion gases (Fig. 1), and a lower volumetric flow rate for analyses via oxygen consumption calorimetry. It is intended for use on materials and products that contain only small amounts of combustible ingredients or components such as test specimens that yield a peak heat release of <200 kW/m2 and total heat release of <15 MJ/m2.
Note 1: PMMA is typically used to check the general operation of a Cone Calorimeter. PMMA should not be used with this standard as the heat release rate is too high.
1.3 The rate of heat release is determined by measurement of the oxygen consumption as determined by the oxygen concentration and the flow rate in the exhaust product stream. The effective heat of combustion is determined from a concomitant measurement of test specimen mass loss rate, in combination with the heat release rate. Smoke development (an optional measurement) is measured by obscuration of light by the combustion product stream.
1.4 Test specimens shall be exposed to initial test heat fluxes generated by a conical radiant heater. External ignition, when used, shall be by electric spark. The test specimen testing orientation is horizontal, independent of whether the end-use application involves a horizontal or a vertical orientation.
1.5 Ignitability is determined as a measurement of time from initial exposure to time of sustained flaming.
1.6 This test method has been developed for use for material and product evaluations, mathematical modeling, design purposes, and development and research. Examples of material test specimens include portions of an end-use product or the various components used in the end-use product.
1.7 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.8 This standard is used to measure and describe the response of materials, products, or assemblies to heat and flame under controlled conditions, but does not by itself incorporate all factors required for fire hazard or fire risk assessment of the materials, products, or assemblies under actual fire conditions.
1.9 Fire testing is inherently hazardous. Adequate safeguards for personnel and property shall be employed in conducting these tests.
1.10 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard statements, see Section 7.
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