Standard Test Method for Measuring the Rate of Well Discharge by Circular Orifice Weir
5.1 This test method provides design information for construction of an orifice weir. It also describes setup, operation, inspection, calculation of discharge, and reporting. The accuracy of a circular weir decreases at low flows. The use of a circular orifice weir requires a constant flow velocity over the period of measurement. The results may be affected by the piezometers distance from the orifice plate. This equipment may not be appropriate for measuring flows on small wells, or wells with limited recharge.
5.2 Aquifer testing has been conducted for the purposes of production and pressure relief well design and water resource assessment. Production wells are used for public and industrial water supplies, hydraulic controls, and groundwater capture. Pressure relief wells are for hydraulic controls. Test wells are for the purpose of water resource assessment.
5.3 Discharge must also be known for certain methods to evaluate well and pump performance.
Note 1: Practice D3740 provides evaluation factors for the activities in this standard. The quality of the result produced by this standard is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing it and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice D3740 are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing/sampling/inspection/etc. Users of this standard are cautioned that compliance with Practice D3740 does not in itself assure reliable results. Reliable results depend on many factors; Practice D3740 provides a means of evaluating some of those factors.
1.1 This test method covers construction and operation of a circular orifice weir for measuring the discharge from a well. This test method is a part of a series of standards prepared on the in situ determination of hydraulic properties of aquifer systems by single- or multiple-well tests. Selection of a well discharge measurement test method is described in Guide D5737.
1.2 The discharge rate determined by this test method is commonly used for a number of aquifer test methods and to provide information for the evaluation of well and pump performance.
1.3 Limitations—This test method is limited to the description of a method common to hydraulic engineering for the purpose of groundwater discharge measurement in temporary or test conditions.
1.4 Much of the information presented in this test method is based on work performed by the Civil Engineering Department of Purdue University during the late 1940s. The essentials of that work have been presented in a pamphlet prepared by Layne-Bowler, Inc.2 and updated by Layne Western Company, Inc.3
1.5 All observed and calculated values shall be conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026.
1.5.1 The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded and calculated in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition they are representative of the significant digits that should generally be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user’s objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this document to consider significant digits sused analysis methods for engineering design.
1.6 Units—The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
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