Standard Test Method for Measuring the Effect of Temperature on the Cohesive Strength Development of Adhesives using Lap Shear Bonds under Tensile Loading
4.1 The test method enables strength values for wood and other materials bonded with an adhesive under a range of controlled bonding temperature, time, and pressure conditions to be evaluated. Bond formation and subsequent testing is affected in a coordinated fashion, and this enables transient strength values of sets of similar bond types to be explored with diverse parameters as independent variables. Principal among these variables is the temperature at which bonds are formed and the time that selected temperatures are maintained prior to testing. The use of controlled methods of adhesive application, the rapid attainment of stable bond formation conditions, and the rapid transition to the bond testing mode enables snapshots of bond strength to be attained as bonds progress from limited strength (or initial tack) to maximum strength. Derived data may be used to evaluate and compare the strength development characteristics of diverse types and formulations of adhesive. The method may thus be used to aid in tailoring and matching adhesives to the manufacture of diverse bonded products that involve heating.
4.2 The method may also be used to evaluate the co-dependent effect of temperature and time on the degradation of sample bonds. Pressing temperatures up to 265°C (509°F) may be necessary for such investigations of thermal degradation. Specimens are pressed for a range of times and temperatures and very shortly thereafter tested either at elevated temperature or immediately following rapid forced air cooling. Alternatively, thermal damage of pre-formed bond samples may be evaluated by subjecting them to controlled temperature and time sequences prior to testing.
4.3 The method may also be used to evaluate the effect of wood type and variability, or of non-wood materials, on bond strength development.
4.4 By hermetically sealing the overlap region of sample bonds during their formation, the method may also be used to evaluate the effect of moisture and other resident volatile fluids on bond strength development.
4.5 The method may also be used to evaluate the effect that the temperature at which variously formed bonds are tested has on their strength. Controlled rapid forced air cooling immediately after bond formation but before testing is necessary for such investigations. This approach may be employed to explore the thermoplastic characteristic of thermosetting adhesives and also the strength of hot melt adhesives as a function of pressing and testing temperatures.
1.1 This test method concerns bonding and testing of wood adhesives and related adhesives using small scale tensile lap-shear samples in a manner that emphasizes transient cohesive strength as a function of bonding time and temperature.
1.2 Use of thin adherends enables bondlines to be rapidly heated to elevated temperatures and maintained at those temperatures for a range of times at a controlled pressure before testing.
1.3 Optional rapid forced air cooling of bonds after pressing and immediately before testing enables the effect of testing temperature on transient strength to be evaluated.
1.4 Bond overlap distance is specified to ensure that failure occurs in the bondline rather than in unbonded portions of adherend strips, and also to minimize the effect of shear stress non-uniformity along the overlap during tensile testing.
1.5 Standard wood or alternative non-standard materials must be of specified high quality and uniformity of structure and dimension to minimize variability of bonding and maximize stress transfer into the bonds during testing.
1.6 The effect of wood variability and type, or of the properties of alternative non-wood materials, on bond strength development may be explored using the method.
1.7 Optional hermetic sealing of bond overlaps during their heated pressing enables the effect of moisture on bonding to be evaluated.
1.8 Thermal damage, either of pre-formed bonds or by prolonging bond forming times, may be evaluated as a function of time and elevated temperature using this test method.
1.9 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.10 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Some specific hazards statements are given in Section 10 on Hazards.
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