Standard Test Methods for Evaluation of Engine Oils in a High-Speed, Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine—1K Procedure (0.4¿% Fuel Sulfur) and 1N Procedure (0.04¿% Fuel Sulfur)
5.1 These are accelerated engine oil tests (known as the 1K and 1N test procedures), performed in a standardized, calibrated, stationary single-cylinder diesel engine using either mass fraction 0.4 % sulfur fuel (1K test) or mass fraction 0.04 % sulfur fuel (1N test), that give a measure of (1) piston and ring groove deposit forming tendency, (2) piston, ring and liner scuffing and (3) oil consumption.
5.2 The 1K test was correlated with vehicles equipped with certain multi-cylinder direct injection engines used in heavy duty and high speed service prior to 1989, particularly with respect to aluminum piston deposits, and oil consumption, when fuel sulfur was nominally mass fraction 0.4 %. These data are given in Research Report RR:D02-1273.9
5.3 The 1N test has been used to predict piston deposit formation in four-stroke cycle, direct injection, diesel engines that have been calibrated to meet 1994 U.S. federal exhaust emission requirements for heavy-duty engines operated on fuel containing less than mass fraction 0.05 % sulfur. See Research Report RR:D02-1321.9
5.4 These test methods are used in the establishment of diesel engine oil specification requirements as cited in Specification D4485 for appropriate API Performance Category oils (API 1509).
5.5 These test methods are also used in diesel engine oil development.
1.1 These test methods cover the performance of engine oils intended for use in certain diesel engines. They are performed in a standardized high-speed, single-cylinder diesel engine by either the 1K (0.4 % mass fuel sulfur) or 1N (0.04 % mass fuel sulfur) procedure.3 The only difference in the two test methods is the fuel used. Piston and ring groove deposit-forming tendency and oil consumption are measured. Also, the piston, the rings, and the liner are examined for distress and the rings for mobility. These test methods are required to evaluate oils intended to satisfy API service categories CF-4 and CH-4 for 1K, and CG-4 for 1N of Specification D4485.
1.2 These test methods, although based on the original Caterpillar 1K/1N procedures,3 also embody TMC information letters issued before these test methods were first published. These test methods are subject to frequent change. Until the next revision of these test methods, TMC will update changes in these test methods by the issuance of information letters which shall be obtained from TMC (see Annex A15).
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.3.1 Exception—Where there is no direct SI equivalent such as screw threads, national pipe threads/diameters, tubing size, or single source equipment specified. Also Brake Specific Fuel Consumption is measured in kilograms per kilowatthour.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific precautionary statements appear throughout the text. Being engine tests, these test methods do have definite hazards that shall be met by safe practices (see Annex A16 on Safety Precautions).
1.5 The following is the Table of Contents:
Summary of Test Methods
Significance and Use
General Laboratory Requirements
Test Engine Accessories and Parts
Reagents and Materials
Test Oil Sample Requirements
Preparation of Apparatus
Engine Pre-Test Lubrication System Flush
Engine Pre-Test Measurements and Inspections
Pressure Testing of Fuel System Assembly
Calibration of Engine Test Stand
General Requirements and Frequency of Calibration
Specified Test Parameters
Calibration Test Acceptance Criteria
Action on Rejection of Calibration Test
Engine Operating Procedure
Operating Conditions and Oil Additions
Measurement of Oil Consumption
Sampling Used Oil
Shutdowns, Lost Time and Off Tolerance Conditions
Recording of Exhaust Temperature
Air-Fuel Ratio Measurement
Recording of Engine Conditions
Inspections, Photographs and Measurements
Reference to Reporting Form
Pre-Test Measurements of Engine Parts
Electronic Transmission of Test Results (Optional)
Reporting Calibration Test Results
Precision and Bias
Specifications for Test Engine and Engine Build
Intake Air System Details
Exhaust System Details
Cooling System Details
Oil System Modifications and Instrument Locations
Other Pressure and Temperature Measurement Locations
Oil Consumption Linear Regression Method
Test Fuel Specifications
Lubrication System, Flush Apparatus and Procedure
Engine Operating Conditions
Procedure for Rating Piston and Liner
Calculation of Percent Offset and Percent Deviation
1K/1N Test Reporting
Parts List by Part Number (P/N) and Warranty
Role of Test Monitoring Center
Statistical Equations for Mean and Standard Deviation
Examples of Forms for Reporting
Optional Recording of Oil Pass Limits
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