Standard Practice for Preparing Precision and Bias Statements for Test Methods for Construction Materials
This practice provides guidance in preparing precision and bias statements for ASTM test methods pertaining to construction materials. Test method shall conform to the maximum acceptable range of individual measurements. In order to be valid the indexes of precision to be included in the precision statement as guides for the operator must be based on estimates of the precision of the test method obtained from a statistically designed inter-laboratory series of tests. This series of tests must involve a sufficient number of laboratories, materials, and replicate measurements so that the results obtained provide reliable estimates of the true precision characteristic of the test method. The procedures described in this practice are based on the assumption that the proper estimates of precision have already been obtained. In any test method, tolerances are placed on the accuracy of measuring equipment. All tests made with a given set of equipment which has an error within the permitted tolerance will produce results with a small consistent bias, but that bias is not inherent in the test method and is not included in the bias statement for the test method. There are two conditions which permit the bias of a test method to be estimated: a standard reference sample of known value has been tested by the test method, and the test method has been applied to a sample which has been compounded in such a manner that the true value of the property being measured is known, such as may be the case, for example, in a test for cement content of concrete.
1.1 The Form and Style for ASTM Standards requires that all test methods contain statements on precision and bias. Further, the precision statement is required to contain a statement on single-operator precision (repeatability) and a statement on multilaboratory precision (reproducibility). This practice provides guidance for preparing precision and bias statements that comply with these requirements. Discussion of the purpose and significance of precision and bias statements for users of test methods is also provided. Examples of precision statements that conform to this practice are included in Appendix X1. This practice supplements Practice E177 and has been developed to meet the needs of ASTM Committees dealing with construction materials.
Note 1: Although this practice is under the jurisdiction of Committee C09, the current version was developed jointly by Committees C01 and C09 and has subsequently been adopted for use by other committees dealing with construction materials.
1.2 This practice assumes that an interlaboratory study (ILS) has been completed in accordance with Practice C802 or Practice E691. The interlaboratory study provides the necessary statistical values to write the precision and bias statements.
1.3 The system of units for this practice is not specified. Dimensional quantities in the practice are presented only in examples of precision and bias statements.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
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