Standard Test Method for Shear Testing of Powders Using the Freeman Technology FT4 Powder Rheometer Shear Cell
5.1 The test can be used to evaluate the following:
5.1.1 Classification or Comparison of Powders—There are several parameters that can be used to classify powders relative to each other, the most useful being the measured shear stresses, cohesion, flow function and angle of internal friction.
5.1.2 Sensitivity Analysis—The shear cell can be used to evaluate the relative effects of a range of powder properties and/or environmental parameters such as (but not limited to) humidity, particle size and size distribution, particle shape and shape distribution, moisture content and temperature.
5.1.3 Quality Control—The test can, in some circumstances, be used to assess the flow properties of a raw material, intermediate or product against pre-determined acceptance criteria.
5.1.4 Storage Vessel Design—Mathematical models exist for the determination of storage vessel design parameters which are based on the flow properties of powders as generated by shear cell testing, requiring shear testing at a range of consolidating stresses as well as the measurement of the wall friction angle with respect to the material of construction of the storage vessel. The methods are detailed in Refs. (1-3).2
Note 1: The quality of the result produced by this test method is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing it, and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice D3740 are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing/sampling/inspection/etc. Users of this test method are cautioned that compliance with Practice D3740 does not in itself assure reliable results. Reliable results depend on many factors; Practice D3740 provides a means of evaluating some of those factors (4). Practice D3740 was developed for agencies engaged in the testing and/or inspection of soil and rock. As such it is not totally applicable to agencies performing this test method. However, users of this test method should recognize that the framework of Practice D3740 is appropriate for evaluating the quality of an agency performing this practice. Currently there is no known qualifying national authority that inspects agencies that perform this test method.
1.1 This method covers the apparatus and procedures for measuring the incipient failure properties of a powder as a function of the normal stress for a given level of consolidation. The method also allows the further determination of the unconfined yield strength, internal friction angles, cohesion, flow function, major principal stress and wall friction angle (with the appropriate wall coupon fitted to the correct accessory).
1.2 These parameters are most commonly used for the design of storage hoppers and bins using industry standard calculations and procedures. They can also provide relative classification or comparison of the flow behavior of different powders or different batches of the same powder if similar stress and shear regimes are encountered within the processing equipment.
1.3 The apparatus is suitable for measuring the properties of powders with a maximum particle size of 1 mm. It is possible to test powders which have a small proportion of particles of 1 mm or greater, but they should be present in the bulk sample as no more than 5 % of the total mass in samples with a normal (Gaussian) size distribution.
1.4 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026.
1.4.1 The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded or calculated, in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user’s objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering design.
1.5 Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
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