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ASTM C231/C231M-14

ASTM C231/C231M-14

Standard Test Method for Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Pressure Method

2017-03-31 /Historical
Superseeded by:
Significance and Use:

3.1 This test method covers the determination of the air content of freshly mixed concrete. The test determines the air content of freshly mixed concrete exclusive of any air that may exist inside voids within aggregate particles. For this reason, it is applicable to concrete made with relatively dense aggregate particles and requires determination of the aggregate correction factor (see 6.1 and 9.1).

3.2 This test method and Test Method C138/C138M and C173/C173M provide pressure, gravimetric, and volumetric procedures, respectively, for determining the air content of freshly mixed concrete. The pressure procedure of this test method gives substantially the same air contents as the other two test methods for concretes made with dense aggregates.

3.3 The air content of hardened concrete may be either higher or lower than that determined by this test method. This depends upon the methods and amount of consolidation effort applied to the concrete from which the hardened concrete specimen is taken; uniformity and stability of the air bubbles in the fresh and hardened concrete; accuracy of the microscopic examination, if used; time of comparison; environmental exposure; stage in the delivery, placement and consolidation processes at which the air content of the unhardened concrete is determined, that is, before or after the concrete goes through a pump; and other factors.


1.1 This test method covers determination of the air content of freshly mixed concrete from observation of the change in volume of concrete with a change in pressure.

1.2 This test method is intended for use with concretes and mortars made with relatively dense aggregates for which the aggregate correction factor can be satisfactorily determined by the technique described in Section 6. It is not applicable to concretes made with lightweight aggregates, air-cooled blast-furnace slag, or aggregates of high porosity. In these cases, Test Method C173/C173M should be used. This test method is also not applicable to nonplastic concrete such as is commonly used in the manufacture of pipe and concrete masonry units.

1.3 The text of this test method references notes and footnotes that provide explanatory information. These notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables and figures) shall not be considered as requirements of this standard.

1.4 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.

1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. (Warning—Fresh hydraulic cementitious mixtures are caustic and may cause chemical burns to skin and tissue upon prolonged exposure.2)

air content; calibration; concrete; correction factor; measuring bowl; meter; pressure; pump; unit weight
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