Standard Test Methods for Deep Foundations Under Lateral Load
4.1 Field tests provide the most reliable relationship between the lateral load applied to a deep foundation and the resulting lateral movement. Test results may also provide information used to assess the distribution of lateral resistance along the pile shaft and the long-term load-deflection behavior. A foundation designer may evaluate the test results to determine if, after applying an appropriate factor of safety, the pile or pile group has an ultimate lateral capacity and a deflection at service load satisfactory to satisfy specific foundation requirements. When performed as part of a multiple-pile test program, the designer may also use the results to assess the viability of different piling types and the variability of the test site.
4.2 The analysis of lateral test results obtained using proper instrumentation helps the foundation designer characterize the variation of pile-soil interaction properties, such as the coefficient of horizontal subgrade reaction, to estimate bending stresses and lateral deflection over the length of the pile for use in the structural design of the pile.
4.3 If feasible, without exceeding the safe structural load on the pile(s) or pile cap, the maximum load applied should reach a failure load from which the engineer may determine the ultimate lateral load capacity of the pile(s). Tests that achieve a failure load may help the designer improve the efficiency of the foundation by reducing the piling length, quantity, or size.
4.4 If deemed impractical to apply lateral test loads to an inclined pile, the engineer may elect to use lateral test results from a nearby vertical pile to evaluate the lateral capacity of the inclined pile.
1.1 The test methods described in this standard measure the lateral deflection of a vertical or inclined deep foundation when subjected to lateral loading. These methods apply to all deep foundations, referred to herein as “pile(s),” that function in a manner similar to driven piles or cast in place piles, regardless of their method of installation, and may be used for testing single piles or pile groups. The test results may not represent the long-term performance of a deep foundation.
1.2 These test methods provide minimum requirements for testing deep foundations under lateral load. Plans, specifications, provisions, or combinations thereof prepared by a qualified engineer may provide additional requirements and procedures as needed to satisfy the objectives of a particular test program. The engineer in responsible charge of the foundation design, referred to herein as the engineer, shall approve any deviations, deletions, or additions to the requirements of these test methods.
1.3 These test methods allow the following test procedures:
Excess Loading (Optional)
Cyclic Loading (Optional)
Surge Loading (Optional)
Reverse Loading (Optional)
Reciprocal Loading (Optional)
Specified Lateral Movement (Optional)
Combined Loading (Optional)
1.4 Apparatus and procedures herein designated “optional” may produce different test results and may be used only when approved by the engineer. The word “shall” indicates a mandatory provision, and the word “should” indicates a recommended or advisory provision. Imperative sentences indicate mandatory provisions.
1.5 A qualified geotechnical engineer should interpret the test results obtained from the procedures of these test methods so as to predict the actual performance and adequacy of piles used in the constructed foundation. See Appendix X1 for comments regarding some of the factors influencing the interpretation of test results.
1.6 A qualified engineer shall design and approve all loading apparatus, loaded members, support frames, and test procedures. The text of these test methods references notes and footnotes which provide explanatory material. These notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables and figures) shall not be considered as requirements of the test methods. These test methods also include illustrations and appendices intended only for explanatory or advisory use.
1.7 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.
1.8 The gravitational system of inch-pound units is used when dealing with inch-pound units. In this system, the pound [lbf] represents a unit of force [weight], while the unit for mass is slugs. The rationalized slug unit is not given, unless dynamic [F=ma] calculations are involved.
1.9 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026.
1.10 The method used to specify how data are collected, calculated, or recorded in these test methods is not directly related to the accuracy to which the data can be applied in design or other uses, or both. How one applies the results obtained using this standard is beyond its scope.
1.11 ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.
1.12 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
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