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ASTM D7320-11a

ASTM D7320-11a

Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils in the Sequence IIIG, Spark-Ignition Engine

2012-09-24 /Historical
Superseeded by:
Significance and Use:

This test method was developed to evaluate automotive engine oils for protection against oil thickening and engine wear during moderately high-speed, high-temperature service.

The increase in oil viscosity obtained in this test indicates the tendency of an oil to thicken because of oxidation. In automotive service, such thickening can cause oil pump starvation and resultant catastrophic engine failures.

The deposit ratings for an oil indicate the tendency for the formation of deposits throughout the engine, including those that can cause sticking of the piston rings in their grooves. This can be involved in the loss of compression pressures in the engine.

The camshaft and lifter wear values obtained in this test provide a measure of the anti-wear quality of an oil under conditions of high unit pressure mechanical contact.

The test method was developed to correlate with oils of known good and poor protection against oil thickening and engine wear. Specially formulated oils that produce less than desirable results with unleaded fuels were also used during the development of this test.

The Sequence IIIG engine oil test has replaced the Sequence IIIF test and can be used in specifications and classifications of engine lubricating oils, such as the following:

Specification D4485,

Military Specification MIL-PRF-2104, and

SAE Classification J183.


1.1 This test method covers an engine test procedure for evaluating automotive engine oils for certain high-temperature performance characteristics, including oil thickening, varnish deposition, oil consumption, as well as engine wear. Such oils include both single viscosity grade and multiviscosity grade oils that are used in both spark-ignition, gasoline-fueled engines, as well as in diesel engines.

1.1.1 Additionally, with nonmandatory supplemental requirements, a IIIGA Test (Mini Rotary Viscometer and Cold Cranking Simulator measurements), a IIIGVS Test (EOT viscosity increase measurement), or a IIIGB Test (phosphorous retention measurement) can be conducted. These supplemental test procedures are contained in Appendixes Appendix X1, Appendix X2, and Appendix X3, respectively.

Note 1—Companion test methods used to evaluate engine oil performance for specification requirements are discussed in SAE J304.

1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

1.2.1 ExceptionWhere there is no direct SI equivalent such as screw threads, national pipe threads/diameters, and tubing size.

1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific warning statements are provided in and 7.1.

1.4 This test method is arranged as follows:

Referenced Documents2
Summary of Test Method4
Significance and Use5
Specified Equipment6.3
Test Engine6.4
Engine Parts6.4.1
Engine Speed and Load Control6.5
Fluid Conditioning Module6.6
Engine Cooling System6.6.1
Flushing Tank6.7
Coolant Mixing Tank6.8
Condenser Cooling Systems6.9
Engine Oil-Cooling System6.10
Fuel System6.11
Induction Air Supply Humidity, Temperature, and Pressure6.12
Temperature Measurement6.13
Thermocouple Location6.13.1
Air-to-Fuel Ratio Determination6.14
Injector Flow Testing6.14.1
Exhaust and Exhaust Back Pressure Systems6.15
Blowby Flow Rate Measurement6.16
Pressure Measurement and Sensor Location6.17
Reagents and Materials7
Test Fuel7.1
Engine and Condenser Coolant7.2
Coolant Additive7.3
Coolant Preparation7.4
Pre-Test Cleaning Materials7.5
Sealing and Anti-seize Compounds7.6
Test Oil Sample Requirements8
Preparation of Apparatus9
Condenser Cleaning9.1
Intake Manifold Cleaning9.2
Cleaning of Engine Parts (other than the block and heads)9.3
Connecting Rod Cleaning9.4
Engine Block Cleaning9.5
Cylinder Head Cleaning9.6
Engine Build-up Procedure9.7
General Information9.7.1
Special Parts9.7.2
Hardware Information9.7.3
Fastener Torque Specifications and Torquing Procedures9.7.4
Main Bearing Cap Bolts9.7.4.1
Cylinder Head Bolts9.7.4.2
Torques for Miscellaneous Bolts, Studs, and Nuts9.7.4.3
Parts Replacement9.8
Engine Block Preparation9.9
Piston Fitting and Numbering9.10
Piston Ring Fitting9.10.1
Pre-Test Camshaft and Lifter Measurements9.11
Camshaft Bearing Installation9.12
Camshaft Installation9.13
Main Bearings9.14
Crankshaft Installation9.14.1
Main Bearing Cap Installation9.14.2
Crankshaft Sprocket9.15
Camshaft Sprocket and Timing Chain9.16
Crankshaft End Play9.17
Piston Pin Installation9.18
Piston Installation9.18.1
Harmonic Balancer9.19
Connecting Rod Bearings9.20
Engine Front Cover9.21
Coolant Inlet Adapter9.22
Oil Dipstick Hole9.23
Oil Pan9.24
Cylinder Head Assembly9.25
Adjustment of Valve Spring Loads9.26
Cylinder Head Installation9.27
Hydraulic Valve Lifters9.28
Valve Train Loading9.30
Intake Manifold9.31
Rocker Covers9.32
Water Inlet Adapter9.33
Coolant Outlet Adapter9.35
Oil Filter Adapter9.36
Oil Sample Valve9.37
Ignition System9.38
Throttle Body9.39
Accessory Drive Units9.40
Exhaust Manifolds, Water-Cooled9.41
Engine Flywheel9.42
Pressure Checking of Engine Coolant System9.43
Lifting of Assembled Engines9.44
Mounting the Engine on the Test Stand9.45
External Cooling System Cleaning9.46
Engine Coolant Jacket Cleaning (Flushing)9.47
Coolant Charging9.48
Test Oil Charging9.49
Engine Oil Pump Priming9.50
Laboratory and Engine Test Stand Calibration10.1
Testing of Reference Oils10.2
Reference Oil Test Frequency10.3
Reporting of Reference Oil Test Results10.4
Evaluation of Reference Oil Test Results10.5
Status of Non-Reference Oil Tests Relative to Reference
Oil Test
Status of Test Stands Used for Non-Standard Tests10.7
Data Acquisition and Control10.8
Sample Rate10.8.1
Measurement Accuracy10.8.2
Measurement Resolution10.8.8
System Time Response10.8.9
Quality Index10.8.10
Engine Operating Procedure11
Dipstick and Hole Plug11.1
Dipstick Hole O-ring11.2
Engine Start-up and Shutdown Procedures11.3
Scheduled Shutdown11.5
Non-Scheduled Shutdowns11.6
Oil Sampling11.7
Oil Leveling11.8
Air-to-Fuel-Ratio Measurement and Control11.9
Air-to-Fuel Ratio Verification11.10
Blowby Flow Rate Measurement11.11
NOx Determinations11.12
Data Recording11.13
Initial run (10 min)11.14
Engine Oil Quality Testing (100 h)11.15
Test Termination11.16
Determination of Test Results12
Engine Disassembly12.2
Preparation of Parts for Rating of Sticking, Deposits,
and Plugging
Piston Deposit Rating12.4
Post-Test Camshaft and Lifter Wear Measurements12.5
Viscosity Test12.6
Testing Oil Samples for Wear Metals12.7
Blowby Flow Rate Measurements12.8
Oil Consumption Computation12.9
Photographs of Test Parts12.10
Retention of Representative Test Parts12.11
Severity Adjustments12.12
Determination of Operational Validity12.13
Report Forms14.1
Precision of Reported Units14.2
Precision and Bias15
The Role of the ASTM Test Monitoring Center (TMC) and
the Calibration Program
Annex A1
Sequence IIIG Test Parts Replacement GuidelinesAnnex A2
Sequence IIIG Determination Volume of Engine Oilin PanAnnex A3
Sequence IIIG Test Fuel AnalysisAnnex A4
Sequence IIIG Test ReportingAnnex A5
Sequence IIIG Test Air-to-Fuel Ratio Control Flow ChartAnnex A6
Sequence IIIG Test Set Points and Control StatesAnnex A7
Sequence IIIG Quality Index Upper and Lower ValuesAnnex A8
Sequence IIIG Engine Oil Level WorksheetAnnex A9
Blowby Flow Rate DeterminationAnnex A10
Safety HazardsAnnex A11
Sequence IIIG Blueprint ListingAnnex A12
Fluid Condition Module componentsAnnex A13
Engine Build WorksheetsAnnex A14
Sequence IIIGA Test ProcedureAppendix X1
Sequence IIIGVIS Test ProcedureAppendix X2
Sequence IIIGB Test ProcedureAppendix X3
cam and lifter wear; deposits; engine oil; engine wear; high-temperature performance; oil consumption; oil thickening; oil viscosity; oxidation resistance; Sequence IIIG test; spark-ignition automotive engine; varnish; varnish deposition; Spark ignition; Automotive engine fuels/oils; Engine wear; Sequence IIIG
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