Standard Practices for Measuring Surface Wind and Temperature by Acoustic Means
Sonic anemometer/thermometers are used to measure turbulent components of the atmosphere except for confined areas and very close to the ground. These practices apply to the use of these instruments for field measurement of the wind, sonic temperature, and atmospheric turbulence components. The quasi-instantaneous velocity component measurements are averaged over user-selected sampling times to define mean along-axis wind components, mean wind speed and direction, and the variances or covariances, or both, of individual components or component combinations. Covariances are used for eddy correlation studies and for computation of boundary layer heat and momentum fluxes. The sonic anemometer/thermometer provides the data required to characterize the state of the turbulent atmospheric boundary layer.
The sonic anemometer/thermometer array shall have a sufficiently high structural rigidity and a sufficiently low coefficient of thermal expansion to maintain an internal alignment to within ±0.1°. System electronics must remain stable over its operating temperature range; the time counter oscillator instability must not exceed 0.01 % of frequency. Consult with the manufacturer for an internal alignment verification procedure.
The calculations and transformations provided in these practices apply to orthogonal arrays. References are also provided for common types of non-orthogonal arrays.
1.1 These practices cover procedures for measuring one-, two-, or three-dimensional vector wind components and sonic temperature by means of commercially available sonic anemometer/thermometers that employ the inverse time measurement technique. These practices apply to the measurement of wind velocity components over horizontal terrain using instruments mounted on stationary towers. These practices also apply to speed of sound measurements that are converted to sonic temperatures but do not apply to the measurement of temperature by the use of ancillary temperature devices.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
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