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Normas ASTM – AENOR
ASTM E390-11

ASTM E390-11

Standard Reference Radiographs for Steel Fusion Welds

Fecha:
2015-09-22 /Historical
Superseeded by:
Significance and Use:

These reference radiographs may be used as a means for establishing the types and severity levels of discontinuities that are revealed by radiographic examination of steel fusion welds.

Each volume contains illustrations of representative graded and ungraded discontinuities applicable to seven thickness ranges, as shown in Table 1. Table 2 lists the discontinuity types and severities illustrated for each thickness of base material. Each of the graded discontinuity types has five severity levels, 1 through 5 in order of increasing severity. The ungraded discontinuities are included for informational purposes.

These reference radiographs may be used in contractual specifications, for which agreement has been reached between purchaser and supplier, to establish acceptance limits of the types and severity levels of discontinuities revealed by radiographic examination.

The use of this document is not intended to be restricted to the specific energy levels given in Table 3 or to the thickness limits given in Table 1. This document may be used, where there is no other applicable document, for other energy levels or thicknesses, or both, for which it is found to be applicable and for which agreement has been reached between purchaser and manufacturer.

TABLE 1 Applicable Thickness Ranges

Illustration
Thickness,
in. (mm)
Base Material Thickness Range,
in. (mm)A
Vol I
0.030 (0.8)to and including 0.050 (1.2)
0.080 (2.0)over 0.050 (1.2) to and including 1/8 (3.2)
3/16 (4.8)over 1/8 (3.2) to and including ¼ (6.4)
Vol II
3/8 (9.5)over ¼ (6.4) to and including ½ (13)
¾ (19)over ½ (13) to and including 1½ (38)
2 (51)over 1½ (38) to and including 3 (76)
Vol III
5 (127)over 3.0 (76) to and including 8 (203)

A In the special cases of joining two members of unequal thickness, the standard applicable to the thinner member shall be used.

TABLE 2 Types of Discontinuities Illustrated for Each Thickness of Base Material

Discontinuity TypeBase Material Thickness and Grading, in. (mm)
0.030 (0.8)0.080 (2.0)3/16 (4.8)3/8 (9.5)¾ (19)2 (51)5 (127)
Scattered porosityGrade 15
Fine scattered porosityGrade 15Grade 15Grade 15Grade 15Grade 15Grade 15
Coarse scattered porosityGrade 15Grade 15Grade 15Grade 15Grade 15Grade 15
Clustered porosityGrade 15Grade 15Grade 15Grade 15Grade 15Grade 15Grade 15
Linear porosity (globular indications)AungradedGrade 15Grade 15Grade 15Grade 15Grade 15Grade 15
Slag inclusionsGrade 15Grade 15Grade 15Grade 15Grade 15Grade 15
Tungsten inclusionsGrade 15Grade 15Grade 15Grade 15Grade 15ungraded
Incomplete penetrationungradedGrade 15Grade 15Grade 15Grade 15Grade 15
Lack of fusionungradedGrade 15 Grade 15Grade 15Grade 15Grade 15
Elongated or worm hole porosity ungradedungradedungradedungradedungraded
Burn throughungradedungradedungradedungradedungraded
Icicles (teardrops)ungradedungradedungradedungradedungraded
Longitudinal crackungradedungradedungradedungradedungradedungraded
Transverse crackungradedungradedungradedungradedungradedungraded
Crater crackungradedungradedungradedungradedungraded
Undercutungradedungradedungradedungradedungraded

A The severity of linear porosity (globular indications) should be judged by their length and clustering rather than by their optical density.

TABLE 3 Radiographic TechniqueA

Base Material
Thickness,
in. (mm)
kVpmATimersSource-to-
Film Dis-
tance, in.
Screens in
Cassettes
Film Type
ASTM
E94B
Vol I
0.030 (0.8)9010 180210 48none 1
0.080 (2.0)12010 150210 48none 1
3/16 (4.8)15010 180270 480.005 in. Pb front 1
0.010 in. Pb back
Vol II
3/8 (9.5)17510 175200 480.005 in. Pb front C
0.010 in. Pb back
¾ (19)25010 4365 600.005 in. Pb front 1
0.010 in. Pb back
2 (51)2000 or 60CoD1.5 45531080.005 in. Pb front 1
0.010 in. Pb back
Vol III
5 (127)2000 or 60CoD1.5420450108 1

A All films were processed by automatic film processors.

B ASTM Guide E94.

C Not defined in Guide E94; manufacturers' description isultra fine grain, high contrast.

D These reference radiographs were made with 60Co.

Scope:

1.1 This standard provides reference radiographs for steel fusion welds that contain typical discontinuities with varying severity levels in different thicknesses of material. The reference radiograph films are an adjunct to this standard and must be purchased separately from ASTM International if needed.

1.2 There are three volumes of reference radiographs based on seven nominal weld thicknesses as follows:

Vol ISet of 16 plates (81/2 by 11 in.) covering base material up to and including ¼ in. (6.4 mm) in thickness.

Vol IISet of 29 plates (8½ by 11 in.) covering base material over ¼ to and including 3 in. (6.4 to 76 mm) in thickness.

Vol IIISet of 32 plates (8 ½ by 11 in.) covering base material over 3 to including 8 in. (76 to 203 mm) in thickness.

1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Keywords:
discontinuities; fusion welds; gamma ray; reference radiographs; steel; X-ray: Steel welds; Welding/welds; Welding/welds (nondestructive testing); Fusion-welded materials/applications; Reference radiographs
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