Standard Reference Radiographs for Steel Fusion Welds
These reference radiographs may be used as a means for establishing the types and severity levels of discontinuities that are revealed by radiographic examination of steel fusion welds.
Each volume contains illustrations of representative graded and ungraded discontinuities applicable to seven thickness ranges, as shown in Table 1. Table 2 lists the discontinuity types and severities illustrated for each thickness of base material. Each of the graded discontinuity types has five severity levels, 1 through 5 in order of increasing severity. The ungraded discontinuities are included for informational purposes.
These reference radiographs may be used in contractual specifications, for which agreement has been reached between purchaser and supplier, to establish acceptance limits of the types and severity levels of discontinuities revealed by radiographic examination.
The use of this document is not intended to be restricted to the specific energy levels given in Table 3 or to the thickness limits given in Table 1. This document may be used, where there is no other applicable document, for other energy levels or thicknesses, or both, for which it is found to be applicable and for which agreement has been reached between purchaser and manufacturer.
TABLE 1 Applicable Thickness Ranges
A In the special cases of joining two members of unequal thickness, the standard applicable to the thinner member shall be used.
TABLE 2 Types of Discontinuities Illustrated for Each Thickness of Base Material
A The severity of linear porosity (globular indications) should be judged by their length and clustering rather than by their optical density.
TABLE 3 Radiographic TechniqueA
A All films were processed by automatic film processors.
B ASTM Guide E94.
C Not defined in Guide E94; manufacturers' description isultra fine grain, high contrast.
D These reference radiographs were made with 60Co.
1.1 This standard provides reference radiographs for steel fusion welds that contain typical discontinuities with varying severity levels in different thicknesses of material. The reference radiograph films are an adjunct to this standard and must be purchased separately from ASTM International if needed.
1.2 There are three volumes of reference radiographs based on seven nominal weld thicknesses as follows:
Vol ISet of 16 plates (81/2 by 11 in.) covering base material up to and including ¼ in. (6.4 mm) in thickness.
Vol IISet of 29 plates (8½ by 11 in.) covering base material over ¼ to and including 3 in. (6.4 to 76 mm) in thickness.
Vol IIISet of 32 plates (8 ½ by 11 in.) covering base material over 3 to including 8 in. (76 to 203 mm) in thickness.
1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
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