Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Inspection of Aluminum-Alloy Wrought Products for Aerospace Applications
A number of factors such as the condition of the entry and back surfaces of the inspected part, the inclination of the ultrasonic beam with respect to the entry surface, and variations in the performance characteristics of the test system may cause significant differences in amplitudes of discontinuity indications and back reflections. These factors can seriously impair the reliability and the quantitative value of the ultrasonic test outlined in this practice.
Accurate evaluations of discontinuity size are also significantly affected by variations in search unit characteristics and by irregularities in discontinuity surfaces which can influence reflectivity. For these reasons, the discontinuity sizes that may be implied by the ultrasonic comparisons outlined in this practice must be regarded as “apparent” or “estimated” in recognition of the limited quantitative value of the measurement.
Because numerous interacting variables in a test system can adversely influence the results of an ultrasonic inspection, the actual quantitative effects of detected discontinuities upon the mechanical properties of the inspected product are difficult to establish. Although this practice provides a reliable control of product quality during manufacture, it is not applicable as an exclusive indicator of the ultimate quality and performance of components fabricated from the inspected products covered by this practice.
1.1 This practice covers the requirements for pulse-echo ultrasonic inspection and includes criteria used to define applicable quality levels of aluminum-alloy wrought products for aerospace applications when performance of the ultrasonic test by the producer is specified, or when ultrasonic inspection is performed by the purchaser upon receipt.
1.2 This practice is not applicable if plastic deformation is introduced into the material after delivery.
1.3 The ultrasonic test described in this practice is employed to detect internal discontinuities oriented in a direction parallel to, or nearly parallel to, the surface of the product. The test is performed either by the immersion method or the contact method using pulsed longitudinal waves which are transmitted and received by a search unit containing either a single crystal or a combination of electrically interconnected multiple crystals. Ultrasonic tests employing either the through-transmission or the angle-beam techniques are not included.
Note 1—Ultrasonic tests employing angle-beam techniques require special reference blocks, search units, and scanning procedures and are subject to negotiation between the purchaser and the seller when such tests are required by the contract or purchase order.
1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units which are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
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