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ASTM F2226-03(2009)e1

ASTM F2226-03(2009)e1

Standard Practice for Determining the Adhesion of Prints and Laminating Films (Withdrawn 2017)

2017-06-12 /Withdrawn
No replacement
Significance and Use:

The image life of printed media displayed in both typical office and outdoor environments can be extended by lamination or encapsulation. While natural aging is the most reliable method of assessing lamination adhesion, the length of the time required makes this method impractical for most materials. The peel strength method allows comparative studies of prints and laminating films.

Good adhesion is prime consideration for laminating films and prints. A laminating film, which does not adhere to a print or vice versa generally, has no commercial value. This method is used to obtain comparative data of peel strength of encapsulated or laminated media.

Peel strength can be measured up to a point where the peel strength is equal to the tensile strength of the adhesive or the print.

In many applications, having sufficient laminate adhesion strength is important to give satisfactory performance. The property is also important in determining the uniformity of quality.

A rough or raspy peel test will produce a higher RMS value than one that is smooth and continuous. It can be related to zippering, shocking, or stick-slip.

Bond Strength and Interfacial AdhesionThe bond strength of a laminate essentially depends on both the adhesive and the cohesive strength of the laminating system. Peel strength of the laminate is typically determined by debonding the laminate using 180° peel test. Fig. 2 presents five possible modes of failure: (1) debonding of the ink receptive underlayer from the substrate (2) debonding of the ink receptive top layer from the underlayer, (3) debonding of the adhesive from the top ink receptive surface, (4) debonding the adhesive from the laminating film, (5) the substrate or film failure tear. The failure of the laminate will occur at its weakest link. It is generally desirable to have high bond strength to the recording element with failure occurring where the adhesive debonds from the ink receptive.


1.1 This practice covers procedures for printing a document, applying a laminating film and subsequently delaminating. The laminate film is used for encapsulating and mounting prints to preserve them in office and outdoor environments.

1.2 This practice describes procedures for determining the adhesion strength of lamination film when it is applied to black and white and color prints produced by printers, copiers and other reprographic devices.

1.3 This practice can be used to test different laminates with a given set of inks and media or it can be used to evaluate inks and media with a given laminate.

1.4 This practice specifies size of specimens and defines conditions for measurement of peel adhesion at a 180° angle and delamination speed.

1.5 This practice is applicable to constructions where the substrate surface is subject to failure under peel conditions.

1.6 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

accelerate aging; adhesion; bond strength; debonding; delamination; encapsulating; high temperature laminates; ink jet; lamination; low temperature laminates; media; mounting; peel strength; pressure-sensitive laminates; printing; thickness; Business copy products; Delamination--adhesives; Laminates (adhesive applications); Mounting materials; Office environment
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