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ASTM D4865-09

ASTM D4865-09

Standard Guide for Generation and Dissipation of Static Electricity in Petroleum Fuel Systems

2014-11-14 /Historical
Superseeded by:
Significance and Use:

Pumping, filtering, and tank filling of petroleum products, particularly refined distillates, can cause the generation and accumulation of electrostatic charges and can result in static discharges capable of causing fires and explosions. This guide provides an overview of the factors involved in the generation of such electrostatic charges. Methods are described for the alleviation of the problem, and cited authoritative references contain more details.

This guide is not intended to provide operating or safety rules for the handling of petroleum products to avoid electrostatic hazards.


1.1 This guide describes how static electricity may be generated in petroleum fuel systems, the types of equipment conducive to charge generation, and methods for the safe dissipation of such charges. This guide is intended to increase awareness of potential operating problems and hazards resulting from electrostatic charge accumulation.

1.2 This guide is not intended to provide specific solutions but indicates available techniques the user may wish to investigate to alleviate electrostatic charges. This guide does not cover the effects of stray currents or of lightning, either of which can also produce sparks leading to fires or explosions.

1.3 This guide is not intended to address detailed safety practices associated with static electricity in petroleum product systems.

1.4 The values in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only.

1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

aviation fuels; distillate fuels; electrical conductivity; electrostatic charging; electrostatic hazards; loading; safety; sparking; static electricity; Additives--petroleum products; Charge generation/relaxation; Conductance and conductivity (electrical); Containers--tank cars/wagons; Electrostatic charge/discharge; Exit velocity; Filters/filter procedures--petroleum analysis; Flammability--petroleum products; Flow and flow rate--petroleum products; Fuel conductivity; Fuel oils; Gaseous fuels; Hydrocarbons; Ignition--petroleum products; Impurities--petroleum products; Line velocity reduction; Pumps; Petroleum oils; Petroleum products; Relaxation time; Splash filling; Static charge; Tanks; Ullage space
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