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ASTM D4631-95(2008)

ASTM D4631-95(2008)

Standard Test Method for Determining Transmissivity and Storativity of Low Permeability Rocks by In Situ Measurements Using Pressure Pulse Technique (Withdrawn 2017)

2017-01-09 /Historical
Superseeded by:
Significance and Use:

Test MethodThe pulse test method is used to determine the transmissivity and storativity of low-permeability formations surrounding the packed-off intervals. This test method is considerably shorter in duration than the pump and slug tests used in more permeable rocks. To obtain results to the desired accuracy, pump and slug tests in low-permeability formations are too time consuming, as indicated in Fig. 1 (from Bredehoeft and Papadopulos (1)).

AnalysisThe transient pressure data obtained using the suggested method are evaluated by the curve-matching technique described by Bredehoeft and Papadopulos (1), or by an analytical technique proposed by Wang et al (2). The latter is particularly useful for interpreting pulse tests when only the early-time transient pressure decay data are available.


ConversionsThe permeability of a formation is often expressed in terms of the unit darcy. A porous medium has a permeability of 1 darcy when a fluid of viscosity 1 cP (1 mPa·s) flows through it at a rate of 1 cm3/s (106 m 3/s)/1 cm2 (104 m2) cross-sectional area at a pressure differential of 1 atm (101.4 kPa)/1 cm (10 mm) of length. One darcy corresponds to 0.987 μm2. For water as the flowing fluid at 20°C, a hydraulic conductivity of 9.66 μm/s corresponds to a permeability of 1 darcy.

Viscosity of WaterTable 1 shows the viscosity of water as a function of temperature.

TABLE 1 Viscosity of Water as a Function of Temperature

Temperature, °CAbsolute Viscosity, mPa·s
10 1.31
12 1.24
14 1.17
16 1.11
18 1.06
20 1.00
22 0.96
24 0.91
26 0.87
28 0.84
30 0.80
32 0.77
34 0.74
36 0.71
38 0.68
40 0.66

1.1 This test method covers a field procedure for determining the transmissivity and storativity of geological formations having permeabilities lower than 103 μm2 (1 millidarcy) using the pressure pulse technique.

1.2 The transmissivity and storativity values determined by this test method provide a good approximation of the capacity of the zone of interest to transmit water, if the test intervals are representative of the entire zone and the surrounding rock is fully water saturated.

1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only.

1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

borehole drilling; discontinuities; fault zones; field testing flow and flow rate; groundwater; permeability; pressure testing; pulse testing; rock; saturation; storativity; transmissivity; viscosity; water; water saturation: Borehole drilling; Discontinuities--rock; Fault zones; Field testing--rock; Flow and flow rate--soil/rock/related materials; Permeability--soil/rock; Pressure testing--rock; Pulse testing; Rock materials/properties/analysis; Saturation; Storativity; Transmissivity and reflectivity; Viscosity--rock; Water analysis; Water saturation
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