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ASTM D4546-08

ASTM D4546-08

Standard Test Methods for One-Dimensional Swell or Collapse of Cohesive Soils

2014-04-09 /Historical
Significance and Use:

The soil swell/collapse strains measured from these test methods can be used to develop estimates of heave or settlement for a confined soil profile subject to one-dimensional heave or settlement, or stress-induced settlement following wetting-induced heave/settlement. They can also be used to estimate the pressure that would be necessary to prevent swelling. Selection of test method, loading, and inundation sequences should, as closely as possible, simulate field conditions because relatively small variations in unit weight and water content, or sequence of loading and wetting can significantly alter the test results. (See 6.1.8 and Refs (1-5).)

Note 2—Notwithstanding the statement on precision and bias contained in this standard: The precision of this test method is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing the test and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies which meet the criteria of Practice D3740 are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing. Users of this test method are cautioned that compliance with Practice D3740 does not in itself assure reliable testing. Reliable testing depends on several factors; Practice D3740 provides a means of evaluating some of these factors.


1.1 These test methods cover three alternative laboratory methods for measuring free swell, swell pressure, and the magnitude of one-dimensional swell or collapse of compacted or intact cohesive soils.

Note 1—Refer to Sections 4, 5, 6 and 13.8 to determine the best method for a particular application.

1.2 The test methods can be used to measure the magnitude of one-dimensional wetting-induced swell or collapse (hydrocompression) under different vertical (axial) pressures, as well as the magnitude of swell pressure and the magnitude of free swell. It can also be used to obtain data for stress-induced compression following wetting-induced swell or collapse.

1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values stated in inch-pound units are approximate.

1.4 All measured and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026.

1.4.1 The method used to specify how data are collected, calculated, or recorded in this standard is not directly related to the accuracy to which the data can be applied in design or other uses. How one applies the results obtained using this standard is beyond its scope.

1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

collapse; compression; expansive soil; free swell; heave; hydrocompression; laboratory tests; settlement; swell; swell pressure; Cohesive soils; Heave; Loading tests--soil/related materials; One-dimensional swell/settlement potential; Pressure testing--soil; Settlement; Swelling
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