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ASTM D934-08

ASTM D934-08

Standard Practices for Identification of Crystalline Compounds in Water-Formed Deposits By X-Ray Diffraction

2013-03-06 /Historical
Superseeded by:
Significance and Use:

The identification of the crystalline structures in water-formed deposits assists in the determination of the deposit sources and mode of deposition. This information may lead to measures for the elimination or reduction of the water-formed deposits.


1.1 These practices provide for X-ray diffraction analysis of powdered crystalline compounds in water-formed deposits. Two are given as follows:

Practice ACamera 12 to 21
Practice BDiffractometer22 to 30

1.2 Both practices yield qualitative identification of crystalline components of water-formed deposits for which X-ray diffraction data are available or can be obtained. Greater difficulty is encountered in identification when the number of crystalline components increases.

1.3 Amorphous phases cannot be identified without special treatment. Oils, greases, and most organic decomposition products are not identifiable.

1.4 The sensitivity for a given component varies with a combination of such factors as density, degree of crystallization, particle size, coincidence of strong lines of components and the kind and arrangement of the atoms of the components. Minimum percentages for identification may therefore range from 1 to 40 %.

1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to consult and establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific precautionary statements are given in Section 8 and Note 20.

crystallographic examination; deposits; metal oxides; scale; x-ray diffraction; Chemical analysis--water applications; Crystallinity; Deposits/deposition; Diffractometer; Identification; Water-formed deposits; X-ray diffraction analysis
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