Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Thermohydrometer Method
Density and API gravity are used in custody transfer quantity calculations and to satisfy transportation, storage, and regulatory requirements. Accurate determination of density or API gravity of crude petroleum and liquid petroleum products is necessary for the conversion of measured volumes to volumes at the standard temperatures of 15°C or 60°F.
Density and API gravity are also factors that indicate the quality of crude petroleum. Crude petroleum prices are frequently posted against values in kg/m3 or in degrees API. However, this property of petroleum is an uncertain indication of its quality unless correlated with other properties.
Field of Application—Because the thermohydrometer incorporates both the hydrometer and thermometer in one device, it is more applicable in field operations for determining density or API gravity of crude petroleum and other liquid petroleum products. The procedure is convenient for gathering main trunk pipelines and other field applications where limited laboratory facilities are available. The thermohydrometer method may have limitations in some petroleum density determinations. When this is the case, other methods such as Test Method D 1298 (API MPMS Chapter 9.1) may be used.
This test method is suitable for determining the density, relative density, or API gravity of low viscosity transparent or opaque liquids, or both. This test method, when used for opaque liquids, requires the use of a meniscus correction (see 7.2).
1.1 This test method covers the determination, using a glass thermohydrometer, of the density, relative density (specific gravity), or API gravity of crude petroleum and liquid petroleum products with Reid vapor pressures of 101.325 kPa (14.696 psi) or less. Values are determined at existing temperatures and corrected to 15°C or 60°F by means of international standard tables.
1.2 The values stated in either SI units or inch pound-units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the standard.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
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