Standard Practice for Measuring Hydration Kinetics of Hydraulic Cementitious Mixtures Using Isothermal Calorimetry
Thermal power curves are used to evaluate the isothermal hydration kinetics of the combined mixture of different materials during the early period after being mixed with water. These isothermal power curves, or hydration profiles, may provide indications relative to setting characteristics, compatibility of different materials, sulfate balance and early strength development. The isothermal hydration profiles can also be used to evaluate the effects of compositions, proportions, and time of addition of materials as well as curing temperature. Special care must be used in evaluating extended retardation with paste specimens, which have been shown to overestimate the retardation of some mixtures containing cement, SCM, and admixtures.
This procedure can be used to measure the effect of chemical admixtures on the cement hydration profile. In many cases, the addition of chemical admixture changes the kinetics of cement hydration.
Although this technique has been used historically to understand issues related to setting and slump loss, it must be emphasized that isothermal calorimetry results cannot predict concrete performance definitely, either positively or negatively. Extensive verification in concrete at planned dosages and temperatures, and at higher dosages, is needed. Isothermal calorimetry is an effective tool to identify sensitivities, so that concrete testing can be efficiently planned and performed.
This practice provides a means of assessing the relative hydration performance of various test mixtures compared with control mixtures that are prepared in a similar manner.
The procedure and apparatus can be used to monitor the thermal power from pastes and mortars alone or in combination with chemical admixtures.
The isothermal calorimeter described here can be used to measure the thermal power and heat of hydration of mortars prepared independently or obtained by wet sieving from concrete in accordance with Practice C 172.
1.1 This practice describes the apparatus and procedure for measuring relative differences in hydration kinetics of hydraulic cementitious mixtures, either in paste or mortar (See Note 1), including those containing admixtures, various supplementary cementitious materials (SCM), and other fine materials by measuring the thermal power using an isothermal calorimeter.
Note 1— Paste specimens are often preferred for mechanistic research when details of individual reaction peaks are important or for particular calorimetry configurations. Mortar specimens may give results that have better correlation with concrete setting and early strength development and are often preferred to evaluate different mixture proportions for concrete. Both paste and mortar studies have been found to be effective in evaluating concrete field problems due to incompatibility of materials used in concrete mixtures.
1.2 UnitsThe values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. (Warning—Fresh hydraulic cementitious mixtures are caustic and may cause chemical burns to skin and tissue upon prolonged exposure. )
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