Standard Practice for Selecting Generic Biological Test Methods for Materials and Devices
1.1 This practice recommends generic biological test methods for materials and devices according to end-use applications. While chemical testing for extractable additives and residual monomers or residues from processing aids is necessary for most implant materials, such testing is not included as part of this practice. The reader is cautioned that the area of materials biocompatibility testing is a rapidly evolving field, and improved methods are evolving rapidly, so this practice is by necessity only a guideline. A thorough knowledge of current techniques and research is critical to a complete evaluation of new materials.
1.2 These test protocols are intended to apply to materials and medical devices for human application. Biological evaluation of materials and devices, and related subjects such as pyrogen testing, batch testing of production lots, and so on, are also discussed. Tests include those performed on materials, end products, and extracts. Rationale and comments on current state of the art are included for all test procedures described.
1.3 The biocompatibility of materials used in single or multicomponent medical devices for human use depends to a large degree on the particular nature of the end-use application. Biological reactions that are detrimental to the success of a material in one device application may have little or no bearing on the successful use of the material for a different application. It is, therefore, not possible to specify a set of biocompatibility test methods which will be necessary and sufficient to establish biocompatibility for all materials and applications.
1.4 The ethical use of research animals places the obligation on the individual investigator to determine the most efficient methods for performing the necessary testing without undue use of animals. Where adequate prior data exists to substantiate certain types of safety information, these guidelines should not be interpreted to mean that testing should be unnecessarily repeated.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
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