Standard Test Method for On-Line Measurement of Low Level Particulate and Dissolved Metals in Water by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF)
Corrosion products, in the form of particulate and dissolved metals, in the steam and water circuits of electricity generating plants are of great concern to power plant operators. Aside from indicating the extent of corrosion occurring in the plant, the presence of corrosion products has deleterious effects on plant integrity and efficiency. Deposited corrosion products provide sites at which chemicals, which are innocuous at low levels, may concentrate to corrosive levels and initiate under-deposit corrosion. Also, corrosion products in feedwater enter the steam generating components where deposition on heat transfer surfaces reduces the overall efficiency of the plant.
Most plants perform some type of corrosion product monitoring. The most common method is to sample for long time periods, up to several days, after which laboratory analysis of the collected sample gives the average corrosion product level over the collection time period. This methodology is referred to as integrated sampling. With the more frequent measurements in the on-line monitor, a time profile of corrosion product transport is obtained. Transient high corrosion product levels can be detected and measured, which cannot be accomplished with integrated sampling techniques. With this newly available data, plant operators may begin to correlate periods of high corrosion product levels with controllable plant operating events. In this way, operators may make more informed operational decisions with respect to corrosion product generation and transport.
1.1 This test method covers the operation, calibration, and data interpretation for an on-line corrosion product (metals) monitoring system. The monitoring system is based on x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of metals contained on membrane filters (for particulate forms) or resin membranes (for dissolved forms). Since the XRF detector is sensitive to a range of emission energy, this test method is applicable to simultaneous monitoring of the concentration levels of several metals including titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, mercury, lead, and others in a flowing sample. A detection limit below 1 ppb can be achieved for most metals.
1.2 This test method includes a description of the equipment comprising the on-line metals monitoring system, as well as, operational procedures and system specifications.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Formato físico y digital
Nota: Precios sin IVA ni gastos de envío
Añadir a la cesta