Standard Test Method for Compressive Properties of Plastic Lumber and Shapes
Compression tests provide information about the compressive properties of plastic lumber and shapes when these products are used under conditions approximating those under which the tests are made. For many materials, there may be a specification that requires the use of this test method, but with some procedural modifications that take precedence when adhering to the specification. Therefore, it is advisable to refer to that material specification before using this test method. Table 1 in Classification D 4000 lists the ASTM materials standards that currently exist.
Compressive properties include modulus of elasticity, secant modulus, compressive strength, and stress at a given strain. In the case of a material that fails in compression by a shattering fracture, the compressive strength has a very definite value. In the case of a material that does not fail in compression by a shattering fracture nor exhibits a compressive yield point, the compressive strength is an arbitrary one depending upon the degree of distortion that is regarded as indicating complete failure. Many plastic lumber materials will not exhibit a true yield point. Compressive strength can have no real meaning in such cases. For plastic lumber, the stress at a given strain of 3 % (0.03 in./in. [mm/mm]) is typically used.
Compression tests provide a standard method of obtaining data for research and development, quality control, acceptance or rejection under specifications, and special purposes. The tests cannot be considered significant for engineering design in applications differing widely from the load-time scale of the standard test. Such applications require additional tests such as impact, creep, and fatigue.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the mechanical properties of plastic lumber and shapes, when the entire cross-section is loaded in compression at relatively low uniform rates of straining or loading. Test specimens in the "as-manufactured" form are employed. As such, this is a test method for evaluating the properties of plastic lumber or shapes as a product and not a material property test method.
1.2 Plastic lumber and plastic shapes are currently made predominantly with recycled plastics. However, this test method would also be applicable to similar manufactured plastic products made from virgin resins, or where the product is non-homogenous in the cross-section.
1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Note 1—There is no similar or equivalent ISO standard.
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