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ASTM D828-97(2002)

ASTM D828-97(2002)

Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Paper and Paperboard Using Constant-Rate-of-Elongation Apparatus (Withdrawn 2009)

2009-09-15 /Historical
Significance and Use:

The tensile properties measured in this test method are fundamental properties associated with the manufacture, or end use, or both, of paper and paper products. They may be influenced by, or indicative of the type fibers used or the treatment of the fibers, or both, in a particular paper. They may also be influenced by or indicative of specific manufacturing procedures used in producing a specific paper or paper product. Likewise, paper converting operations may significantly impact properties measured using this test method, and this test method may be used to measure and understand such effects.

Tensile strength is indicative of the serviceability of many papers, such as wrapping, bag, gummed tape, and cable wrapping, that are subjected to direct tensile stress. The tensile strength of printing papers is indicative of the potential resistance to web breaking during printing and other converting operations and during travel of the web from the roll through the equipment.

Stretch, and sometimes tensile stiffness are indicative of the ability of the paper to conform to a desired contour. These are important properties of creped papers, towels, napkins, decorative papers, industrially used paper tapes (both creped and pleated), bags, and liners for cans, barrels, and cartons.

Tensile energy absorption is a measure of the ability of a paper to absorb energy at the strain rate of the test, and indicates durability of papers that are subjected to repetitive straining and stressing, such as multiwall sack papers.

Tensile stiffness often gives a better indication of the mechanical response of the sheet to converting forces than do tensile rupture criteria.


1.1 This test method covers procedures for determining tensile properties of paper and paperboard.

1.2 The procedures given in this test method are for use with constant-rate-of-elongation tensile testing equipment and as such, may be used with instruments designed for either vertical or horizontal operation, and whether manually operated or computer controlled.

1.3 These procedures are applicable for all types of paper, paperboard, paper products, and related materials within the measurement limitations of the equipment used. They are not for use with combined corrugated board.

1.4 Properties that may be determined using this test method include tensile strength, stretch, tensile energy absorption, tensile stiffness, breaking length, and tensile index.

1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given in parentheses are for information only.

1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

breaking length; elongation; paper; paper products; percentage elongation; tensile energy absorption; tensile index; tensile strength
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