Standard Test Methods for Acidity or Alkalinity of Water
1.1 These test methods cover the determination of acidity or alkalinity of all types of water. Three test methods are given as follows:
1.2 In all of these test methods the hydrogen or hydroxyl ions present in water by virtue of the dissociation or hydrolysis of its solutes, or both, are neutralized by titration with standard alkali (acidity) or acid (alkalinity). Of the three procedures, Test Method A is the most precise and accurate. It is used to develop an electrometric titration curve (sometimes referred to as a pH curve), which defines the acidity or alkalinity of the sample and indicates inflection points and buffering capacity, if any. In addition, the acidity or alkalinity can be determined with respect to any pH of particular interest. The other two methods are used to determine acidity or alkalinity relative to a predesignated end point based on the change in color of an internal indicator or the equivalent end point measured by a pH meter. They are suitable for routine control purposes.
1.3 When titrating to a specific end point, the choice of end point will require a careful analysis of the titration curve, the effects of any anticipated changes in composition on the titration curve, knowledge of the intended uses or disposition of the water, and a knowledge of the characteristics of the process controls involved. While inflection points (rapid changes in pH) are usually preferred for accurate analysis of sample composition and obtaining the best precision, the use of an inflection point for process control may result in significant errors in chemical treatment or process control in some applications. When titrating to a selected end point dictated by practical considerations, (1) only a part of the actual neutralizing capacity of the water may be measured, or (2) this capacity may actually be exceeded in arriving at optimum acidity or alkalinity conditions.
1.4 A scope section is provided in each test method as a guide. It is the responsibility of the analyst to determine the acceptability of these test methods for each matrix.
1.5 Former Test Methods C (Color-Comparison Titration) and D (Color-Change Titration After Boiling) were discontinued. Refer to for historical information.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
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