Standard Guide for Assessment and Maintenance of Exterior Dimension Stone Masonry Walls and Facades
This guide outlines the standard procedures for the visual assessment and maintenance of exterior dimension stone masonry walls and facades to determine their general condition. The examination procedures established here can help identify and diagnose problems that require repairs or corrective action, but is not intended to be used for buildings requiring major exterior rehabilitation or structural repairs. This guide applies to walls of solid stone or dimension stone claddings with joints usually filled with mortar or sealant that are designed to accommodate structural and thermal movements. This guide specifically excludes the following: dimension stone used in interior building surfaces, flooring, or paving; slate dimension stone used as roofing; thin stone exterior cladding; stone cladding attached to metal flames; the removal of small area stains. Also, this guide may apply, but is not specifically directed, to the following: walls and facades containing semi-dimensions, or partially sized, stone in the form of split-face or rubble; and stone-facade concrete panels. The common problems to consider include rising damps; mortar distresses; surface losses; cracks; displacements, bowings, or bulges; and spalls and fragments. The corresponding repairs to be made that shall address these problems are detailed for each.
1.1 This guide outlines how to visually assess exterior stone masonry walls and facades to determine their general condition. Examining key features of the construction can help identify and diagnose problems which require repairs or corrective action. Such an examination can expose conditions which may be addressed with maintenance and minor repairs, or may require expert assistance. This guide is not intended to be used for buildings requiring major exterior rehabilitation or structural repairs.
1.1.1 This guide applies to walls of solid stone or dimension stone used as a cladding. Stone cladding is typically connected to a backup material with a variety of anchoring methods, including traditional hand-set masonry anchors such as straps, dowels, cramps, hook-and-eyes, dove-tails, wire ties, and the like. Joints between stones in these types of buildings are usually filled with mortar or sealant. Sealant-filled joints are usually designed to accommodate structural and thermal movements.
1.2 This guide specifically excludes dimension stone used in interior building surfaces, flooring or paving, slate dimension stone used as roofing. Though they share some similar assessment and maintenance concerns, thin stone (less than 2 inches nominal thickness) exterior cladding, and stone cladding attached to metal flames are also excluded due to their unique design characteristics and performance requirements. Although procedures and cautions listed herein may apply to walls and facades containing semi-dimension, or partially sized, stone in the form of split-face, or rubble and to stone-facade concrete panels, the guide is not specifically directed to such stone use. It does not address removal of small-area stains.
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