Test Methods for Determination of Fracture Toughness of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperatures (Withdrawn 1999)
1.1 These provisonal test methods pertain to the fracture toughness determination of KIpb (precracked beam specimen), KIsc (surface cracked in flexure), and KIvb (chevron-notched beam specimen) of advanced ceramics at ambient temperature. The fracture toughness values are determined using beam specimens with a sharp crack. The crack is either a straight-through crack (pb), or a semi-elliptical surface crack (sc), or it is propagated in a chevron notch (vb).
Note 1-The terms bend(ing) and flexure are synonymous in this standard.
1.2 These provisional test methods determine fracture toughness values based on a load and crack length measurement (pb, sc), or a load measurement and an inferred crack length (vb). In general, the fracture toughness is determined from maximum load. Load and displacement or alternative (for example, time) are recorded for the pb specimen and vb specimen.
1.3 These provisional test methods are applicable to materials with both flat or with rising R-curves. The fracture toughness measured from stable crack extension may be different than that measured from unstable crack extension. This difference may be more pronounced for materials exhibiting a rising R-curve.
Note 2-One difference between the procedures in these provisional test methods and test methods such as Test Method E 399, which measure KIc by one set of specific operational procedures, is that Test Method E 399 focuses on the start of crack extension from a fatigue precrack for metallic materials. The test methods of this provisional standard for advanced ceramics make use of either a sharp precrack formed via bridge loading or via Knoop indent prior to the test, or a crack formed during the test. Differences in test procedure and analysis may cause the values from each test method to be different. Therefore, fracture toughness values determined with these provisional test methods cannot be interchanged with KIc as defined in Test Method E 399 and may not be interchangeable with each other.
1.4 These provisional test methods give fracture toughness values, KIpb, KIsc, and KIvb, for specific conditions of environment, testing speed and temperature. The fracture toughness values, KIpb, KIsc, and KIvb for a material can be a funciton of environment, testing speed and temperature.
1.5 These provisional test methods are intended primarily for use with advanced ceramics that are macroscopically homogeneous. Certain whisker- or particle-reinforced ceramics may also meet the macroscopic behavior assumptions.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.7 This provisional standard is divided into three major parts and related sub parts. The first major part is the main body and provides general information on the methods described within this provisional standard, the applicability to materials comparison and qualification, and requirements and recommendations for fracture toughness testing. The second major part is composed of annexes that provide procedures, specimen design, precracking, testing and data analysis for each method. Annex A1 describes suggested test fixtures, Annex A2 describes the pb method, Annex A3 describes the sc method, and Annex A4 describes the vb method. The third major part consists of three appendices detailing issues related to the fractography and precracking used for the sc method.
1.8 Values expressed in these provisional test methods are used in accordance with the International System of Units (SI) and Practice E 380.
1.9 Provisional standards achieve limited consensus through approval of the sponsoring committee.
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