Standard Specification for Composition of Hydroxylapatite for Surgical Implants
This specification covers chemical and crystallographic requirements for hydroxylapatite intended for surgical implants. Elemental analysis for calcium and phosphorus will be consistent with the expected stoichiometry of hydroxylapatite. The calcium and phosphorus contents shall be determined using a suitable method such as ion chromatography. A quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis shall indicate a minimum hydroxylapatite content of 95 %. The concentration of trace elements such as arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead shall be determined for hydroxylapatite derived from natural resources. The analysis of other trace elements may be required, based on the conditions, apparatus, or environments specific to the manufacturing techniques and raw materials. Either inductively coupled plasma/mass spectroscopy (ICP/MS), atomic absorption (AAS), or the methods mentioned shall be used.
1.1 This specification covers chemical and crystallographic requirements for hydroxylapatite intended for surgical implants. For a material to be called hydroxylapatite, it must conform to this specification. (See Appendix X1.)
1.2 The biological response to hydroxylapatite in soft tissue and bone has been characterized by a history of clinical use (1-3)² and by laboratory studies (4-6).
1.3 This specification includes powder, particulate, and forms intended for use as surgical implants, components of surgical implants, or as raw materials for manufacutring processes such as thermal spray coating, electrophoretic deposition, physical vapor deposition, and so forth.
1.4 This specification specifically excludes hydroxylapatite coatings, amorphous calcium phosphate, ceramic-glasses, tribasic calcium phosphate, whitlockite, and alpha- and beta-tricalcium phosphate. (See Specification F 1088.)
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