Standard Practice for Preparation of Samples of the Constant Composition Region of Epitaxial Gallium Arsenide Phosphide for Hall Effect Measurements (Withdrawn 2008)
The efficiency of light-emitting diodes is known to vary with the carrier density of the starting material. This procedure provides a technique to prepare specimens in which the Hall carrier density can be measured in a region typical of that in which devices are fabricated. This quantity, which is related to the carrier density, can be used directly as a quality control parameter.
Mobility is a function of a number of parameters of a semiconductor, including ionized impurity density, compensation, and lattice defects, some or all of which may be relatable to material quality as reflected in device quality. Use of this procedure makes the measurement of the mobility of the constant composition region possible.
Since in GaAs (1−x)Px with x near 0.38, as is most often used for light-emitting diodes, the direct (000 or Γ) minimum and the indirect (100 or X) minima are within a few millielectronvolts in energy of each other, both are populated with current-carrying electrons. The mobility in the two bands is significantly different, and the relative population of the two is dependent upon the precise composition (x value), doping level, and temperature. Therefore, both Hall coefficient and Hall mobility must be interpreted with care (2,3). In particular, a measurement of Hall carrier density will not agree with a carrier density measurement on the same specimen made by capacitance-voltage techniques. Nevertheless, if the intent of measuring the carrier density of purchased or grown specimens is to find those which are optimum for diode fabrication, Hall measurements can be of value because a curve of efficiency versus Hall carrier density can be derived for the device process to be used based upon data taken on specimens prepared in accordance with this procedure.
1.1 This practice covers a procedure to be followed to free the constant composition region of epitaxially grown gallium arsenide phosphide, GaAs(1x)Px, from the substrate and graded region on which it was grown in order to measure the electrical properties of only the constant composition region, which is typically 30 to 100 m thick. It also sets forth two alternative procedures to be followed to make electrical contact to the specimen.
1.2 It is intended that this practice be used in conjunction with Test Methods F 76.
1.3 The specific parameters set forth in this recommended practice are appropriate for GaAs0. 62P0. 38, but they can be applied, with changes in etch times, to material with other compositions.
1.4 This practice does not deal with making or interpreting the Hall measurement on a specimen prepared as described herein, other than to point out the existence and possible effects due to the distribution of the free carriers among the two conduction band minima.
1.5 This practice can also be followed in the preparation of specimens of the constant composition region for light absorption measurements or for mass or emission spectrometric analysis.
1.6 This practice becomes increasingly difficult to apply as specimens become thinner.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For hazard statement, see Section 9 and 220.127.116.11.
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