Standard Test Methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Wrought Duplex Austenitic/Ferritic Stainless Steels
1.1 The purpose of these test methods is to allow detection of the presence of intermetallic phases in mill products of duplex stainless steels to the extent that toughness or corrosion resistance is affected significantly. These test methods will not necessarily detect losses of toughness or corrosion resistance attributable to other causes.
1.2 Duplex (austenitic-ferritic) stainless steels are susceptible to the formation of intermetallic compounds during exposures in the temperature range from approximately 600 to 1750°F (320 to 955°C). The speed of these precipitation reactions is a function of composition and thermomechanical history of each individual piece. The presence of these phases is detrimental to toughness and corrosion resistance.
1.3 Correct heat treatment of duplex stainless steels can eliminate these detrimental phases in the mill product. Rapid cooling of the mill product provides the maximum resistance to formation of detrimental phases by subsequent thermal exposures.
1.4 Compliance with the chemical and mechanical requirements for the applicable product specification does not necessarily indicate the absence of detrimental phases in the mill product.
1.5 These test methods include the following:
1.5.1 Test Method A—Sodium Hydroxide Etch Test for Classification of Etch Structures of Duplex Stainless Steels (Sections 3-7).
1.5.2 Test Method B—Charpy Impact Test for Classification of Structures of Duplex Stainless Steels (Sections 8-13).
1.5.3 Test Method C—Ferric Chloride Corrosion Test for Classification of Structures of Duplex Stainless Steels (Sections 14-20).
1.6 The presence of detrimental intermetallic phases is readily detected in all three tests, provided that a sample of appropriate location and orientation is selected. Because the occurrence of intermetallic phases is a function of temperature and cooling rate, it is essential that the tests be applied to the region of the material experiencing the conditions most likely to promote the formation of an intermetallic phase. In the case of common heat treatment, this region will be that which cooled most slowly. Except for rapidly cooled material, it may be necessary to sample from a location determined to be the most slowly cooled for the material piece to be characterized.
1.7 The tests do not determine the precise nature of the detrimental phase but rather the presence or absence of an intermetallic phase to the extent that it is detrimental to the toughness and corrosion resistance of the material.
1.8 An example of the correlation of thermal exposures, the occurrence of intermetallic phases, and the degradation of toughness and corrosion resistance is given in .
1.9 The values stated in either inch-pound or SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.10 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
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