Standard Test Method for Direct-Current Magnetic Properties of Materials Using the Point by Point (Ballistic) Method and Ring Specimens
3.1 Test methods using suitable ring-type specimens4 are the preferred methods of determining the basic magnetic properties of a material caused by the absence of demagnetizing effects and are well suited for specification acceptance, service evaluation, and research and development.
3.2 Provided the test specimen is representative of the bulk material as is usually the case for thin strip and wire, this test is also suitable for design purposes.
3.3 When the test specimen is not necessarily representative of the bulk material such as a ring machined from a large forging or casting, the results of this test method may not be an accurate indicator of the magnetic properties of the bulk material. In such instances, the test results when viewed in context of past performance history will be useful for judging the suitability of the current material for the intended application.
1.1 This test method covers dc testing for the determination of basic magnetic properties of materials in the form of ring, toroidal, link, double-lapped Epstein cores, or other standard shapes which may be cut, stamped, machined, or ground from cast, compacted, sintered, forged, or rolled materials. It includes tests for determination of the normal magnetization curve and hysteresis loop taken under conditions of steep wavefront reversals of the direct-current magnetic field strength.
1.2 This test method shall be used in conjunction with Practice A34/A34M.
1.3 This test method is suitable for a testing range from very low magnetic field strength up to 200 or more Oe [15.9 or more kA/m]. The lower limit is determined by integrator sensitivity and the upper limit by heat generation in the magnetizing winding. Special techniques and short duration testing may extend the upper limit of magnetic field strength.
1.4 Testing under this test method is inherently more accurate than other methods. When specified dimensional or shape requirements are observed, the measurements are a good approximation to absolute properties. Test accuracy available is primarily limited by the accuracy of instrumentation. In most cases, equivalent results may be obtained using Test Method A773/A773M or the test methods of IEC Publication 60404-4.
1.5 This test method permits a choice of test specimen to permit measurement of properties in any desired direction relative to the direction of crystallographic orientation without interference from external yoke systems.
1.6 The symbols and abbreviated definitions used in this test method appear in Fig. 1 and Sections 5, 6, 9, and 10. For the official definitions see Terminology A340.
FIG. 1 Basic Circuit Using Ring-Type Cores
Note 1: A1—Multirange ammeter, main-magnetizing current circuit A2—Multirange ammeter, hysteresis-current circuit N1—Magnetizing (primary) winding N2—Flux-sensing (secondary) winding F—Electronic integrator R1—Main current control rheostat R2—Hysteresis current control rheostat S1—Reversing switch S2—Shunting switch for hysteresis current control rheostat
1.7 Warning—Mercury has been designated by EPA and many state agencies as a hazardous material that can cause central nervous system, kidney, and liver damage. Mercury, or its vapor, may be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Caution should be taken when handling mercury and mercury-containing products. See the applicable product Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for details and EPA’s website (http://www.epa.gov/mercury/faq.htm ) for additional information. Users should be aware that selling mercury or mercury-containing products, or both, in your state may be prohibited by state law.
1.8 The values stated in either customary (cgs-emu and inch-pound) units or SI units are to be regarded separately as standard. Within this test method, the SI units are shown in brackets except for the sections concerning calculations where there are separate sections for the respective unit systems. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with this method.
1.9 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.10 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
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