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ASTM G48-11(2020)e1

ASTM G48-11(2020)e1

Standard Test Methods for Pitting and Crevice Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steels and Related Alloys by Use of Ferric Chloride Solution

2020-12-17 /Active
Significance and Use:

4.1 These test methods describe laboratory tests for comparing the resistance of stainless steels and related alloys to the initiation of pitting and crevice corrosion. The results may be used for ranking alloys in order of increasing resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion initiation under the specific conditions of these methods. Methods A and B are designed to cause the breakdown of Type 304 at room temperature.

4.2 The use of ferric chloride solutions is justified because it is related to, but not the same as, that within a pit or crevice site on a ferrous alloy in chloride bearing environments (1, 2).3 The presence of an inert crevice former of consistent dimension on a surface is regarded as sufficient specification of crevice geometry to assess relative crevice corrosion susceptibility.

4.3 The relative performance of alloys in ferric chloride solution tests has been correlated to performance in certain real environments, such as natural seawater at ambient temperature (3) and strongly oxidizing, low pH, chloride containing environments (4), but several exceptions have been reported (4-7).

4.4 Methods A, B, C, D, E, and F can be used to rank the relative resistance of stainless steels and nickel base alloys to pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments. No statement can be made about resistance of alloys in environments that do not contain chlorides.

4.4.1 Methods A, B, C, D, E, and F were designed to accelerate the time to initiate localized corrosion relative to most natural environments. Consequently, the degree of corrosion damage that occurs during testing will generally be greater than that in natural environments in any similar time period.

4.4.2 No statement regarding localized corrosion propagation can be made based on the results of Methods A, B, C, D, E, or F.

4.4.3 Surface preparation can significantly influence results. Therefore, grinding and pickling of the specimen will mean that the results may not be representative of the conditions of the actual piece from which the sample was taken.

Note 1: Grinding or pickling on stainless steel surfaces may destroy the passive layer. A 24¿h air passivation after grinding or pickling is sufficient to minimize these differences (8).

4.4.4 The procedures in Methods C, D, E, and F for measuring critical pitting corrosion temperature and critical crevice corrosion temperature have no bias because the values are defined only in terms of these test methods.

Note 2: When testing as-welded, cylindrical, or other non-flat samples, the standard crevice formers will not provide uniform contact. The use of contoured crevice formers may be considered in such situations, but the use of a pitting test (Practices A, C, or E) should be considered.


1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the determination of the resistance of stainless steels and related alloys to pitting and crevice corrosion (see Terminology G193) when exposed to oxidizing chloride environments. Six procedures are described and identified as Methods A, B, C, D, E, and F.

1.1.1 Method A—Ferric chloride pitting test.

1.1.2 Method B—Ferric chloride crevice test.

1.1.3 Method C—Critical pitting temperature test for nickel-base and chromium-bearing alloys.

1.1.4 Method D—Critical crevice temperature test for nickel-base and chromium-bearing alloys.

1.1.5 Method E—Critical pitting temperature test for stainless steels.

1.1.6 Method F—Critical crevice temperature test for stainless steels.

1.2 Method A is designed to determine the relative pitting resistance of stainless steels and nickel-base, chromium-bearing alloys, whereas Method B can be used for determining both the pitting and crevice corrosion resistance of these alloys. Methods C, D, E, and F allow for a ranking of alloys by minimum (critical) temperature to cause initiation of pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion, respectively, of stainless steels, nickel-base and chromium-bearing alloys in a standard ferric chloride solution.

1.3 These tests may be used to determine the effects of alloying additives, heat treatment, and surface finishes on pitting and crevice corrosion resistance.

1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses after SI units are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

crevice corrosion; ferric chloride test solution; localized corrosion; nickel–base alloys; pitting; stainless steels;
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