Standard Test Method for Dynamic Young’s Modulus, Shear Modulus, and Poisson’s Ratio for Advanced Ceramics by Sonic Resonance
5.1 This test method may be used for material development, characterization, design data generation, and quality control purposes. It is specifically appropriate for determining the modulus of advanced ceramics that are elastic, homogeneous, and isotropic.
5.1.1 This test method is nondestructive in nature. Only minute stresses are applied to the specimen, thus minimizing the possibility of fracture.
5.1.2 The period of time during which measurement stress is applied and removed is of the order of hundreds of microseconds. With this test method it is feasible to perform measurements at high temperatures, where delayed elastic and creep effects would invalidate modulus measurements calculated from static loading.
5.2 This test method has advantages in certain respects over the use of static loading systems for measuring moduli in advanced ceramics. It is nondestructive in nature and can be used for specimens prepared for other tests. Specimens are subjected to minute strains; hence, the moduli are measured at or near the origin of the stress-strain curve with the minimum possibility of fracture. The period of time during which measurement stress is applied and removed is of the order of hundreds of microseconds. With this test method it is feasible to perform measurements at high temperatures, where delayed elastic and creep effects would invalidate modulus measurements calculated from static loading.
5.3 The sonic resonant frequency technique can also be used as a nondestructive evaluation tool for detecting and screening defects (cracks, voids, porosity, density variations) in ceramic parts. These defects may change the elastic response and the observed resonant frequency of the test specimen. Guide E2001 describes a procedure for detecting such defects in metallic and nonmetallic parts using the resonant frequency method.
5.4 Modification of this test method for use in quality control is possible. A range of acceptable resonant frequencies is determined for a specimen with a particular geometry and mass. Any specimen with a frequency response falling outside this frequency range is rejected. The actual modulus of each specimen need not be determined as long as the limits of the selected frequency range are known to include the resonant frequency that the specimen must possess if its geometry and mass are within specified tolerances.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the dynamic elastic properties of advanced ceramics. Specimens of these materials possess specific mechanical resonant frequencies that are determined by the elastic modulus, mass, and geometry of the test specimen. Therefore, the dynamic elastic properties of a material can be computed if the geometry, mass, and mechanical resonant frequencies of a suitable rectangular or cylindrical test specimen of that material can be measured. The resonant frequencies in flexure and torsion are measured by mechanical excitation of vibrations of the test specimen in a suspended mode (Section 4 and Figs. 1 and 4). Dynamic Young’s modulus is determined using the resonant frequency in the flexural mode of vibration. The dynamic shear modulus, or modulus of rigidity, is found using torsional resonant vibrations. Dynamic Young’s modulus and dynamic shear modulus are used to compute Poisson’s ratio.
1.2 This test method is specifically appropriate for advanced ceramics that are elastic, homogeneous, and isotropic (1).2 Advanced ceramics of a composite character (particulate, whisker, or fiber reinforced) may be tested by this test method with the understanding that the character (volume fraction, size, morphology, distribution, orientation, elastic properties, and interfacial bonding) of the reinforcement in the test specimen will have a direct effect on the elastic properties. These reinforcement effects must be considered in interpreting the test results for composites. This test method is not satisfactory for specimens that have cracks or voids that are major discontinuities in the specimen. Neither is the test method satisfactory when these materials cannot be fabricated in a uniform rectangular or circular cross-section.
1.3 A high-temperature furnace and cryogenic cabinet are described for measuring the dynamic elastic moduli as a function of temperature from −195 to 1200 °C.
1.4 There are material-specific ASTM standards that cover the determination of resonance frequencies and elastic properties of specific materials by sonic resonance or by impulse excitation of vibration. Test Methods C215, C623, C747, C848, C1259, E1875, and E1876 may differ from this test method in several areas (for example: sample size, dimensional tolerances, sample preparation, calculation details, etc.). The testing of those materials should be done in compliance with the appropriate material-specific standards. Where possible, the procedures, sample specifications, and calculations in this standard are consistent with the other test methods.
1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The non-SI values given in parentheses are for information only and are not considered standard.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
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