Standard Test Method for Research Octane Number of Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel
5.1 Research O.N. correlates with commercial automotive spark-ignition engine antiknock performance under mild conditions of operation.
5.2 Research O.N. is used by engine manufacturers, petroleum refiners and marketers, and in commerce as a primary specification measurement related to the matching of fuels and engines.
5.2.1 Empirical correlations that permit calculation of automotive antiknock performance are based on the general equation:
Values of k1, k2, and k3 vary with vehicles and vehicle populations and are based on road-O.N. determinations.
5.2.2 Research O.N., in conjunction with Motor O.N., defines the antiknock index of automotive spark-ignition engine fuels, in accordance with Specification D4814. The antiknock index of a fuel approximates the Road octane ratings for many vehicles, is posted on retail dispensing pumps in the U.S., and is referred to in vehicle manuals.
This is more commonly presented as:
5.2.3 Research O.N. is also used either alone or in conjunction with other factors to define the Road O.N. capabilities of spark-ignition engine fuels for vehicles operating in areas of the world other than the United States.
5.3 Research O.N. is used for measuring the antiknock performance of spark-ignition engine fuels that contain oxygenates.
5.4 Research O.N. is important in relation to the specifications for spark-ignition engine fuels used in stationary and other nonautomotive engine applications.
1.1 This laboratory test method covers the quantitative determination of the knock rating of liquid spark-ignition engine fuel in terms of Research O.N., including fuels that contain up to 25 % v/v of ethanol. However, this test method may not be applicable to fuel and fuel components that are primarily oxygenates.2 The sample fuel is tested using a standardized single cylinder, four-stroke cycle, variable compression ratio, carbureted, CFR engine run in accordance with a defined set of operating conditions. The O.N. scale is defined by the volumetric composition of PRF blends. The sample fuel knock intensity is compared to that of one or more PRF blends. The O.N. of the PRF blend that matches the K.I. of the sample fuel establishes the Research O.N.
1.2 The O.N. scale covers the range from 0 to 120 octane number but this test method has a working range from 40 to 120 Research O.N. Typical commercial fuels produced for spark-ignition engines rate in the 88 to 101 Research O.N. range. Testing of gasoline blend stocks or other process stream materials can produce ratings at various levels throughout the Research O.N. range.
1.3 The values of operating conditions are stated in SI units and are considered standard. The values in parentheses are the historical inch-pound units. The standardized CFR engine measurements continue to be in inch-pound units only because of the extensive and expensive tooling that has been created for this equipment.
1.4 For purposes of determining conformance with all specified limits in this standard, an observed value or a calculated value shall be rounded “to the nearest unit” in the last right-hand digit used in expressing the specified limit, in accordance with the rounding method of Practice E29.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific warning statements, see Section 8, 14.4.1, 15.5.1, 16.6.1, Annex A1, A22.214.171.124, A126.96.36.199 (6) and (9), A2.3.5, X3.3.7, X188.8.131.52, X184.108.40.206, X220.127.116.11, X18.104.22.168, and X22.214.171.124.
1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
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