Standard Test Method for Determining Transmissivity and Storage Coefficient of Low-Permeability Rocks by In Situ Measurements Using the Constant Head Injection Test
5.1 Test Method—The constant pressure injection test method is used to determine the transmissivity and storativity of low-permeability formations surrounding packed-off intervals. Advantages of the method are: (1) it avoids the effect of well-bore storage, (2) it may be employed over a wide range of rock mass permeabilities, and (3) it is considerably shorter in duration than the conventional pump and slug tests used in more permeable rocks.
5.2 Analysis—The transient water flow rate data obtained using the suggested test method are evaluated by the curve-matching technique described by Jacob and Lohman (1)4 and extended to analysis of single fractures by Doe et al. (2). If the water flow rate attains steady state, it may be used to calculate the transmissivity of the test interval (3).
Note 2: The quality of the result produced by this standard is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing it, and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice D3740 are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing/sampling/inspection/etc. Users of this standard are cautioned that compliance with Practice D3740 does not in itself assure reliable results. Reliable results depend on many factors; Practice D3740 provides a means of evaluating some of those factors.
Note 3: The function of wells in any unconfined setting in a fractured terrain might make the determination of k problematic because the wells might only intersect tributary or subsidiary channels or conduits. The problems determining the k of a channel or conduit notwithstanding, the partial penetration of tributary channels may make determination of a meaningful number difficult. If plots of k in carbonates and other fractured settings are made and compared, they may show no indication that there are conduits or channels present, except when with the lowest probability one maybe intersected by a borehole and can be verified, such problems are described by Worthington (4) and Smart, 1999 (5). Additional guidance can be found in Guide D5717.
1.1 This test method covers a field procedure for determining the transmissivity and storativity of geological formations having permeabilities lower than 10−3 μm2 (1 millidarcy) using constant head injection.
1.2 The transmissivity and storativity values determined by this test method provide a good approximation of the capacity of the zone of interest to transmit water, if the test intervals are representative of the entire zone and the surrounding rock is fully water-saturated.
1.3 Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. Reporting of test results in units other than SI shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this standard.
Note 1: Unit Conversions—The permeability of a formation is often expressed in terms of the unit darcy (non-SI). A porous medium has a permeability of 1 Darcy when a fluid of viscosity 1 cp (1 mPa·s) flows through it at a rate of 1 cm3/s (10–6 m3/s)/1 cm2 (10–4 m2) cross-sectional area at a pressure differential of 1 atm (101.4 kPa)/1 cm (10 mm) of length. One Darcy corresponds to 0.987 μm2. For water as the flowing fluid at 20°C, a hydraulic conductivity of 9.66 μm/s corresponds to a permeability of 1 Darcy. Permeabilities may also be expressed as millidarcy (md), which is not an SI unit.
1.4 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026.
1.4.1 The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded or calculated, in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user’s objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in analytical methods for engineering design.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
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