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Normas ASTM – AENOR
ASTM E50-17

ASTM E50-17

Standard Practices for Apparatus, Reagents, and Safety Considerations for Chemical Analysis of Metals, Ores, and Related Materials

Fecha:
2017-09-28 /Active
Significance and Use:

4.1 The inclusion of the following paragraph, or a suitable equivalent, in any standard (preferably after the section on Scope) is due notification that the apparatus and reagents required in that standard are subject to the recommendations set forth in these practices.

 

Apparatus and Reagents—Apparatus and reagents required for each determination are listed in separate sections preceding the procedure. Apparatus, standard solutions, and certain other reagents shall conform to the requirements prescribed in ASTM Practices E50, for Apparatus, Reagents, and Safety Considerations for Chemical Analysis of Metals, Ores, and Related Materials.”

 

TABLE 1 Chemical Reagents Specified in ASTM Methods for Chemical Analysis of Metals

Name

Formula

* Acetic acid

CH3COOH

Acetone

CH3COCH3

Acetylacetone (2,4-pentanedione)

CH3COCH2COCH3

Alizarin-Red-S

C6H4COC6H-1,2-(OH)2-3-SO3NaCO

Aluminon (aurintricarboxylic acid-ammonium salt)

(4-HOC6H3-3-COONH4)2C:C6H-3-(COONH4):O

Aluminum metal (99.9 % min)

Al

* Aluminum metal (sheet or rolled foil)

Al

Aluminum ammonium sulfate

Al2(NH4)2(SO4)4·24H2O

Aluminum nitrate

Al(NO3)3·9H2O

Aluminum sulfate

Al2(SO4)3·18H2O

Aluminum oxide, fused (Alundum)

 

1-Amino-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid

NH2C10H5(OH)SO3H

Ammonium acetate

CH3COONH4

Ammonium benzoate

C6H5COONH4

Ammonium bifluoride

NH4FHF

Ammonium bisulfate

NH4HSO4

Ammonium bisulfite

NH4HSO3

Ammonium carbonate

(NH4)2CO3

* Ammonium chloride

NH4Cl

* Ammonium citrate

CH2(COONH4)C(OH)(COOH)CH2COONH4

Ammonium fluoride

NH4F

* Ammonium hydroxideA

NH4OH

Ammonium iodide

NH4I

Ammonium molybdate

(NH4)2MoO4

* Ammonium heptamolybdate tetrahydrate

(NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O

Ammonium nitrate

NH4NO3

* Ammonium oxalate

NH4OCOCOONH4·H2O

* Ammonium phosphate, dibasic (diammonium acid phosphate)

(NH4)2HPO4

* Ammonium persulfate (ammonium peroxydisulfate)

(NH4)2S2O8

* Ammonium sulfate

(NH4)2SO4

* Ammonium tartrate

NH4OCO(CHOH)2COONH4

Ammonium thiocyanate

NH4SCN

Ammonium vanadate

NH4VO3

Antimony metal (powder)

Sb

Antimony trichloride

SbCl3

* Arsenic trioxide

As2O3

Asbestos (for use with Gooch crucible)

 

 

 

Barium Chloride

BaCl2·2H2O

Barium diphenylamine sulfonate

(C6H5NHC6H4-4-SO3)2Ba

* Benzoic acid

C6H5COOH

α-Benzoin oxime (benzoin anti-oxime)

C6H5CHOHC:NOHC6H5

Beryllium sulfate

BeSO4·4H2O

Bismuth metal (99.9 % min)

Bi

Boric acid

H3BO3

Bromocresol green (3′,3",5′,5"-tetrabromo-m-cresolsulfonephthalein)

C6H4SO2OC(C6H-3,5-Br2-2-CH3-4-OH)2

Bromocresol purple (5′,5"-Dibromo-o-cresolsulfonephthalein)

C6H4SO2OC(C6H2-3-CH3-5-Br-4-OH)2

Bromine (liquid)

Br2

Bromophenol blue (3′,3",5′,5"-tetrabromophenolsulfonephthalein)

C6H4SO2OC(C6H2-3,5-Br2-4-OH)2

1-Butanol

CH3CH2CH2CH2OH

Butyl acetate (normal)

CH3COOCH2CH2CH2CH3

 

 

* Cadmium chloride

CdCl2·21/2 H2O

Cadmium chloride, anhydrous

CdCl2

* † Calcium carbonate (low-boron)

CaCO3

Carbon dioxide (gas)

CO2

Carbon dioxide (solid)

CO2

Carbon tetrachloride

CCl4

Carminic acid

1,3,4-(HO)3-2-C6H11O6C6COC6H-5-COOH-6-OH-8-CH3CO

* Chloroform

CHCl3

Cinchonine

C19H22N2O

Citric acid

HOC(COOH)(CH2COOH)2

Cobalt metal

Co

Cobalt sulfate

CoSO4

Coke

 

Congo red test paper

 

Copper metal (99.9 % min)

Cu

* Copper metal (powder or turnings)

Cu

Copper metal (P-free)

Cu

Copper metal (Mn, Ni, and Co-free, less than 0.001 % of each)

Cu

Copper-rare earth oxide mixture

 

m-Cresol purple (m-cresolsulfonephthalein)

C6H4SO2OC(C6H3-2-CH3-4-OH)2

Cupferron

C6H5N(NO)ONH4

Cupric chloride

CuCl2·2H2O

* Cupric nitrate

Cu(NO3)2·3H2O

* Cupric oxide (powder)

CuO

Cupric potassium chloride

CuCl2·2KCl·2H2O

* Cupric sulfate

CuSO4·5H2O

Curcumin

(2-CH3OC6H3-1-OH-4-CH:CHCO)2CH2

 

 

Devarda's alloy

50Cu-45Al-5Zn

Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ([[(carboxymethyl)imino]bis(ethylenenenitrilo)]
 tetraacetic acid)

((HOCOCH2)2NCH2CH2)2NCH2COOH

* Dimethylglyoxime

CH3C:NOHC:NOHCH3

N,N′ Diphenylbenzidine

C6H5NHC6H4C6H4NHC6H5

Diphenylcarbazide (1,5-diphenylcarbohydrazide)

C6H5NHNHCONHNHC6H5

* Disodium (ethylenedinitrilo) tetraacetate dihydrate

See (ethylenedinitrilo) tetraacetic acid disodium salt

Dithiol (toluene-3,4-dithiol)

CH3C6H3(SH)2

Dithizone (diphenylthiocarbazone)

C6H5NHNHCSN:NC6H5

 

 

Eriochrome black-T (1(1-hydroxy-2-naphthylazo)-6-nitro-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid sodium salt)

1-HOC10H6-2-N:N-1-C10H4-2-OH-4-SO3Na-6-NO2

* EDTA (Disodium salt)

See (ethylenedinitrilo) tetraacetic acid disodium salt

* Ethanol

C2H5OH

* Ethyl ether (diethyl ether)

C2H5OC2H5

* (Ethylenedinitrilo) tetraacetic acid disodium salt

HOCOCH2(NaOCOCH2)NCH2N(CH2COONa)CH2COOH·2H2O

Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (2-methoxy-ethanol)

CH3OCH2CH2OH

 

 

* Ferric chloride

FeCl3·6H2O

* Ferric nitrate

Fe(NO3)3·9H2O

Ferric sulfate

Fe2(SO4)3·nH2O

* Ferrous ammonium sulfate

Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2·6H2O

* Ferrous sulfate

FeSO4·7H2O

Fluoroboric acid

HBF4

Fluorescein, sodium salt

2NaOCOC6H4C:C6H3-3(:O)OC6H3-6-ONa

Formaldehyde

HCHO

* Formic acidA

HCOOH

 

 

Gelatin

 

Graphite

C

Glass wool

 

Glycerol

CH2OHCHOHCH2OH

 

 

Hydrazine sulfate

NH2NH2·H2SO4

* Hydrobromic acidA

HBr

* Hydrochloric acidA

HCl

* Hydrofluoric acidA

HF

Hydrogen chloride gas

HCl

* Hydrogen peroxide

H2O2

Hydrogen sulfide gas

H2S

Hydroquinone

1,4-(OH)2C6H4

* Hydroxylamine hydrochloride

NH2OH·HCl

* Hypophosphorous acidB

H3PO2

 

 

Invert sugar

 

* Iodine

I2

Iron metal or wire (99.8 % min)

Fe

Isopropyl ether

(CH3)2CHOCH(CH3)2

 

 

Lead metal

Pb

* Lead acetate

Pb(CH3COO)2

Lead chloride

PbCl2

* Lead nitrate

Pb(NO3)2

Litmus

 

Lithium fluoride

LiF

 

 

Magnesium metal (Sn-free)

Mg

Magnesium perchlorate, anhydrous

Mg(ClO4)2

* Magnesium sulfate

MgSO4·7H2O

Manganese metal (99.8 % min)

Mn

Manganous nitrate

Mn(NO3)2

Manganous sulfate

MnSO4·H2O

Mannitol

CH2OH(CHOH)4CH2OH

Marble chips

 

* Mercuric chloride

HgCl2

* Mercury

Hg

* Methanol

CH3OH

Methyl isobutyl ketone (4-methyl-2-pentanone)

CH3COCH2CH(CH3)2

* Methyl orange (p[[p-dimethylamino)phenyl]azo]benzenesulfonic acid sodium salt)

4-NaOSO2C6H4N:NC6H4-4-N(CH3)2

Methyl purple

formula unknown, patented

* Methyl red (o -[[(p-dimethylamino)phenyl]azo]benzoic acid)

4-(CH3)2NC6H4N:NC6H4-2-COOH

Molybdenum metal (99.8 % min)

Mo

Molybdic acid, anhydride (molybdenum trioxide)

MoO3

Molybdic acid (ammonium paramolybdate)

Assay: as MoO3—85 %

Morin, anhydrous (2′,3,4′,7-penta hydroxyflavone)

5,7-(HO)2C6H2 OC(C6H3-2,4-(OH)2):C(OH)CO

 

 

β-Naphthoquinoline (5,6-benzoquinoline)

C10H6CH:CHCH:N

Neocuproine (2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline)

(CH3)2C12H6N2·12H2O

Nickel metal (99.8 % min)

Ni

Nickel metal (sheet)

Ni

Nickelous nitrate

Ni(NO3)2·6H2O

Nickelous sulfate

NiSO4·6H2O

* Nitric acidA

HNO3

Nitrogen gas (oxygen-free)

N2

Nitrogen, liquid

N2

m-Nitrophenol

NO2C6H4OH

1-Nitroso-2-naphthol(α-nitroso-β-naphthol)

NOC10H6OH

Nitroso-R-salt (1-nitroso-2-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic acid disodium salt)

1-NOC10H4-2-(OH)-3,6-(SO3Na)2

 

 

Osmium tetraoxide

OsO4

Oxalic acid

(COOH)2

Oxygen gas

O2

 

 

* Perchloric acidA

HClO4

1,10-Phenanthroline (o -phenanthroline)

CH:CHCH:NC:CCH:CHC:CN:CHCH:CH·H2O

* Phenolphthalein

C6H4COOC(C6H4-4-OH)2

* Phosphoric acid

H3PO4

Piperidine

NH(CH2)4CH2

Platinized quartz

 

Platinized silica gel

 

Platinum gauze

Pt

* Potassium biphthalate

1-KOCOC6H4-2-COOH

Potassium bisulfate

KHSO4

* Potassium bromate

KBrO3

* Potassium bromide

KBr

* Potassium chlorate

KClO3

* Potassium chloride

KCl

* Potassium chromate

K2CrO4

Potassium columbate

4K2O·3Cb2O5·16H2O

* Potassium cyanide

KCN

* Potassium dichromate

K2Cr2O7

* Potassium ferricyanide

K3Fe(CN)6

Potassium ferrocyanide

K4Fe(CN)6·3H2O

* Potassium fluoride

KF·2H2O

* Potassium hydroxide

KOH

* Potassium iodate

KIO3

* Potassium iodide

KI

Potassium iodide starch paper

 

* Potassium nitrate

KNO3

* Potassium m-periodate

KIO4

* Potassium permanganate

KMnO4

Potassium persulfate

K2S2O8

Potassium phosphate, monobasic

KH2PO4

* Potassium pyrosulfate

K2S2O7

* Potassium sulfate

K2SO4

Potassium tantalum fluoride

K2TaF

Potassium thiocarbonate

K2CS3

* Potassium thiocyanate

KSCN

Pyrogallic acid (pyrogallol)

C6H3-1,3-(OH)3

 

 

Quinine sulfate

(C20H24N2O2)2·H2SO4·2H2O

8-Quinolinol (8-hydroxyquinoline)

HOC6H3N:CHCH:CH

 

 

Sebacic acid

HOCO(CH2)8COOH

Selenium (powder)

Se

Silicon dioxide (silica)

SiO2

* Silver nitrate

AgNO3

Soda-lime

 

Soda-mica mineral (CO2 absorbent)

 

Sodium acetate

CH3COONa

Sodium arsenite

NaAsO2

Sodium azide

NaN3

* Sodium bicarbonate

NaHCO3

* Sodium bismuthate

NaBiO3

Sodium bisulfate

see sodium hydrogen sulfate

* Sodium bisulfate, fused

see sodium hydrogen sulfate, fused

Sodium bisulfite

NaHSO3

* Sodium borate

Na2B4O7·10H2O

* Sodium carbonate, anhydrous

Na2CO3

Sodium chlorate

NaClO3

Sodium chloride

NaCl

Sodium citrate

HOC(COONa)(CH2COONa)2·2H2O

Sodium cyanide

NaCN

Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate

(C2H5)2NCSSNa·3H2O

Sodium dimethylglyoximate

CH3C(:NONa)C(:NONa)CH3·8H2O

Sodium diphenylamine sulfonate

C6H5NHC6H4-4-SO3Na

Sodium dithionite (hydrosulfite)

Na2S2O4

* Sodium fluoride

NaF

Sodium hydrogen sulfate

NaHSO4

Sodium hydrogen sulfate, fused

A mixture of Na2S2O7 and NaHSO4

* Sodium hydroxide

NaOH

Sodium hypophosphite

NaH2PO2·H2O

Sodium molybdate

Na2MoO4·2H2O

Sodium nitrate

NaNO3

Sodium nitrite

NaNO2

Sodium oxalate

NaOCOCOONa

Sodium perchlorate

NaClO4

Sodium peroxide

Na2O2

Sodium phosphate, dibasic, anhydrous

Na2HPO4

Sodium pyrophosphate

Na4P2O7·10H2O

Sodium pyrosulfate

Na2S2O7

Sodium sulfate, anhydrous

Na2SO4

Sodium sulfide

Na2S·9H2O

Sodium sulfite

Na2SO3·7H2O

Sodium sulfite, anhydrous

Na2SO3

Sodium thiocyanate

NaSCN

* Sodium thiosulfate

Na2S2O3·5H2O

* Sodium tungstate

Na2WO4·2H2O

* Stannous chloride

SnCl2·2H2O

* Starch

(C6H10O5)x

Succinic acid

HOCOCH2CH2COOH

Sulfamic acid

NH2SO3H

Sulfatoceric acid (ceric sulfate)

H4Ce(SO4)4

5-Sulfosalicylic acid

2-HOC6H3-1-COOH-5-SO3H·2H2O

Sulfur dioxide gas

SO2

* Sulfuric acidA

H2SO4

* Sulfurous acidA

H2SO3

 

 

Talc

 

* Tartaric acid

HOCO(CHOH)2COOH

Test lead

Pb

Tetrapropylammonium hydroxide

(CH3CH2CH2)4NOH

Thioglycollic acid (mercaptoacetic acid)

CH2SHCOOH

Thiourea

NH2CSNH2

Tin metal (99.9 %min)

Sn

Titanium dioxide

TiO2

Titanium metal (low Sn)

Ti

Triethanolamine (2,2′,2"-nitrilotriethanol)

(CH2OHCH2)3N

 

 

Uranium oxide

U3O8

* Uranyl nitrate

UO2(NO3)2·6H2O

Urea

NH2CONH2

 

 

Zinc (99.9 % min)

Zn

Zinc metal (S-free)

Zn

Zinc oxide

ZnO

Zinc sulfate

ZnSO4·7H2O

Zirconium oxide

ZrO2

Zirconium metal

Zr

Zirconyl chloride

ZrOCl2·8H2O

(A) * Reagent on which ACS specifications exist.

† ACS specification exists but does not cover all requirements.

For concentration of laboratory reagent, see Table 2.

(B) Contains at least 50 % H3PO2.

4.2 It is assumed that the users of these practices will be trained analysts capable of performing common laboratory procedures skillfully and safely. It is expected that work will be performed in a properly-equipped laboratory.

Scope:

1.1 These practices cover laboratory apparatus and reagents that are required for the chemical analysis of metals, ores and related materials by standard methods of ASTM. Detailed descriptions of recommended apparatus and detailed instructions for the preparation of standard solutions and certain nonstandardized reagents will be found listed or specified in the individual methods of analysis. Included here are general recommendations on the purity of reagents and protective measures for the use of hazardous reagents.

1.2 These recommendations are intended to apply to the ASTM methods of chemical analysis of metals when definite reference is made to these practices, as covered in Section 4.

1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific hazards are given in Section 8.

Note 1: The use of the verb “shall” (with its obligatory third person meaning) in this standard has been confined to those aspects of laboratory safety where regulatory requirements are known to exist. Such regulations, however, are beyond the scope of these practices.

1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

Keywords:
apparatus; chemical analysis; reagents; safety;
47,44
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